Hastings Kamuzu Banda

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hastings Kamuzu Banda

Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896 [?] - 25 Novembala 1997) anali msogoleri wa dziko la Malawi kuyambira 1964 mpaka 1994.

Moyo Wake Wa Ngwazi[edit | edit source]

A Kamuzu Banda anabadwira m’boma la Kasungu ku Malawi (dziko lomwe kale linkatchulidwa kuti British Central Africa) kwa a Mphonongo Banda ndi akazi awo a Akupingamnyama Banda. Mpaka lelo tsiku lake leni leni lobadwa silikudziwika ndipo pa chifukwa chakuti kunalibe kulembetsa kwa kubadwa kwa ana, ndi kovuta kudziwa chaka chimene iye anabandwa. Amene analemba nkhani yokhudza moyo wake, a Phillip Short ananena kuti a Banda akuyenera kuti anabandwa mu chaka cha 1898. Ngakhale zili choncho, a Banda amadziwika kuti anabadwa pa 14 Meyi 1906 ndipo limeneli ndi tsiku lomwe limalembedwa kwabdiri m’mabukhu okhudza za moyo wawo. Chipepala chonena za imfa yawo chimanena kuti iwo anali ndi zaka 99, ngakhale ena amati anali ndi zaka 101. Palibe umboni weni weni woonetsa kuti zaka zawo zomwe zimatchulidwa ndi zolondola. Iwo anatenga dzina la Chikhirisitu la Hastings atabatizidwa mu mpingo wa Church of Scotland cha m’ma 1905.

Mu zaka za m’ma 1915-1916, a Banda anachoka kwawo ndi kuyenda ndi a Hannock Msokera Phiri, a ‘malume’ awo amene ankaphunzitsa ku sukulu ya Livingstonia cha kufupi ndi kumudzi kwawo kwa a Banda ndipo iwo anayenda pansi kumapita ku Zimbabwe, mdela la Hartley. Patapita chaka chimodzi, a Banda anayendanso pansi kumapita ku Johannesburg, mdziko la [[South Africa]. Iwo anagwira ntchito zosiyana siyana ku mgodi wa Witwatersrand kwa zaka zingapo. Mu 1925 anapita ku New York, Mdziko la America ndi chithandizo cha abusa a W.T. Vernon a mpingo wa African Methodist.

Moyo wawo wa kunja (1925-1958)[edit | edit source]

A Banda anaphunzira ku sukulu ya sekondale ya Wilberforce Institute ku Ohio, ndipo anamaliza maphunziro awo 1928. Iwo analembetsa kukayamba sukulu ya u dokotala ku Indiana University ndipo patapita ma telemu anayi anasintha nakamaliza maphunziro awo ku University of Chicago, kumene anakamaliza ndi digiri yokhudza za mbiri mu 1931. Iwo anakapitiliza maphunziro awo a zaudokotala ku Meharry Medical College komanso ku University of Edenburg, namaliza maphunziro awo 1941. Pakati pa 1942 ndi 1945 a Banda anagwira ntchito gati dokotala ku Scotland ndi ku England.

Mu 1946, chifukwa cha amfumu a Mwase a ku Kasungu amene a Banda anakumana nawo ku England 1936, ndiponso chifukwa cha pempho la a Malawi ena amene anali ndi chidwi ku nkhani ya ndale, a Banda anakaimira chipani cha Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) ku Manchester. Kuyambira pa nthawiyi, iwo anawonetsa chidwi kwambiri ku nkhani yokhudza kumene anachokera ndipo anapempha Congress yi kuti iwapatse makobiri. Ndi chithandizo cha anthu ena a ku England iwo anathandiza kukamba nkhani za Nyasaland ku London. Iwo anatsutsana kwamtuwagalu ndi zomwe a Roy Welensky omwe ankatsogolera South Rhodesia, kuti apange chitaganya cha dziko la Nyasaland, Northern ndi Southern Rhodesia chomwe iwo ankakhulupilira chingawononge ufulu wa anthu akuda a dziko la Nyasaland. “Chitaganya chopusacho’’(mmene ankachitchulira) chinapangidwa mu 1953. Zinadzatchuka mu 1951 kuti iwo abwelera ku Nyasaland koma m’malo mwake anapita ku Gold Coast (Ghana).

Kubwelera kwawo[edit | edit source]

Hastings Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum ku Lilongwe

Anthu ena amphamvu achipani cha NAC ngati a Henry Chipembere, Kanyama Chiume, Dunduzu Chisiza komanso a T.D.T. Banda (sianali abale awo) anamuchondelera kuti abwelere ku Nyasaland ndi kukathandiza kumenyera ufulu ndipo pa 6 Julaye 1958, a Banda anabwelera ku Nyasaland atachokako kwa zaka 42. Mu mwezi wa Ogasiti kuboma la Nkhata Bay, a Banda anatchulidwa kuti akahle mtsogoleri wa NAC.

A Banda anayamba kuyenda yenda mzikoli, kulankhuka motsutsana ndi chitaganya cha Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland ndipo ankapempha anthu a mzikoli kuti alowe chipani chawo. (Zimamveka kuti iwo anali atayiwala Chichewa ndipo ankafuna munthu wowatathauzira. A John Msonthi ndipo kenaka a John Tembo ndi amene ankawatanthawuzira ndipo a Tembo anakhala pafupi nawo nthawi yonse yomwe anali mtsogoleri). A Banda ankalandilidwa mosangalala kuli konse kumene ankapita ndipo Amalawi ambiri anakhala osakhutilitsidwa ndi ulamuliro wa a British.Pofika 1959, zinthu zinafika poyipa kwambiri ndipo asilikali ochokera ku Rhodesia anabweretsedwa kukathandiza kusungitsa bata ndipo boma linakhazikitsa ulamuliro wokhwima. Pa 3 Malichi, a Banda ndi anthu mazana mazana akuda anamangidwa ku ndende ya Gweru ku Southern Rhodesia. Utsogoleri wa chipani cha NAC, lomwe linasithidwa kukhala Malawi Congress Party unatengedwa moyembekezera ndi a Orton Chirwa amene anamasulidwa mu Ogasiti 1959.

Ku dziko la Britain, azungu anali atayamba kale kulingalira zochoka ku maiko amene ankawalamulira. A Banda anamasulidwa mu Epulo 1960 ndipo anaitanidwa ku London kukakambirana zopeleka ufulu kwa dziko la Nyasaland. A Banda anasankhidwa kukhala nduna yoyang’anira za chilengedwe ndi maboma aang’ono ndipo anasankhidwa kukhala nduna yayikulu ya Nyasaland 1963.

Iwo ndi atsogoleri anzawo a MCP anapanga changi pakukulitsa ma sukulu a sekondale, kukhonzanso mabwalo a milandu a m’mamidzi komanso ndikuthetsa misonkho ya zaulimi ndi kusintha zinthu zina. Pa 6 Julaye 1964 dziko la Malawi linapatsidwa ufulu wodzilamulira lokha.

A Banda ndi amene anasankha dzina lakuti Malawi ndipo anatengera dzinali pa mapu amene anaawona amene nyanja ya mudzikoli linalembedwa kuti nyanja ya Maravi.

Utsogoleri wa Dziko la Malawi[edit | edit source]

Pasanapite mwezi umodzi dziko la Malawi chilandilireni ufulu wodzilamulira wokha, kunachitika nkamngano wokhudza nduna za boma. Anthu ena owatsatira a Banda anapeleka maganizo ochepetsa mphamvu zawo, chifukwa anali atayamba kuonetsa kuti safuna kumva za munthu wina. A Banda anayankha za nkhaniyi pochitsa nduna zinayi, ndipo zina ziwiri zinatula pansi udindo chifukwa chomvera chisoni anzawo. Onse amene ankatsutsana ndi a Banda anathawira kunja kwa dzikoli. A Banda anankhala mstogoleri wa dziko la Malawi pa 6 Julaye 1966. Pa nthawi yomweyo, kunalengezedwa kuti MCP ndi chipani chokha chomwe chinali choloredwa chifukwa dzikoli linakhala la chipani chimodzi kuyambira nthawi yomwe linalandira ufulu wodzilamulira. 1970, msonkhano wa chipanichi unalengeza kuti a Banda ankhala mtsogoleri wa muyaya wa chipanichi ndipo 1971, nyumba ya malamulo inaliengeza kuti a Banda akhala mtsogoleri wa muyaya wa dzikoli. Udindo wawo unkatchulidwa kuti ‘Pulezidenti Wamuyaya wa Dziko la Malawi, Ngwazi Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda’ Dzina lakuti Ngwazi limatanthauza Mkango Waukulu kapena munthi wogonjetsa mu Chichewa.

Anthu ambiri a kunja kwa dzikoli ankawaona a Banda ngati munthu wa mtima wabwino ngakhale ankapanga zachilendobe povala ma suti a wesikoti ndi ma handikachifi ndiponso ankakonda kutenga litchowa. Mu dziko la Malawi, a Banda ankatsatiridwa ndi mtima onse ndi anthu ambiri komanso ankaopedwa. Boma lawo linali la unlamuliro wokhwima poyelekeza ndi maiko ena a mu Africa pa nthawiyo. Ngakhale malamulo a dziko ankalola ufulu kwa anthu, zomwe zinkachitika zanizeni sizimalora maufuluwa ndipo dzikoli linkakhala ngati la ulamuliro wa apolisi.

A Banda ankawonedwa ma pamwamba kwambiri. Nyumba zonse zopangilamo malonda zinkayenera kukhala ndi chithunzi chawo pa khoma ndipo zopachika zina ngati zithunzi kapena ma wotchi sizimaloledwa kukhala m’mwamba mwa chithunzi chawo. Anthu asanayambe kanema, kanema wa a Banda ankawonetsedwa akubayibitsa anthu pamene nyimbo ya fuko la Malawi inkaimbidwa. A Banda akamapita kulikonse, azimayi ankakawachingamira ndi kuwabvinira. Azimayiwa ankabvala chitenje chapadera chomwe chinali ndi nkhope yawo akamakawabvinira. Mipingo inkayenera kuloledwa ndi boma ndipo ma kanema onse ankaunikidwa ndi bungwe loyanganira za censorship. Mabukunso ankadzela ku bungweli. Masamba ena ankachitsedwa m’ma myuzipepala ochokera kunja. Ntchito ya utolankhani inkayang’anidwa kwambiri ndipo inkagwiritsidwa nthcito kukamba zokomera boma la a Bandali. Kanema ya mnyumba inlai yoletsedwa.

Boma la a Banda linkawunika kwambiri mmene anthu amakhalira mdzikoli. Iwowa anakhazikitsa malamulo a kabvalidwe amene ankagwirizana ndi mmene iwo ankawonera chikhalidwe. Azimayi sankaloledwa kubvala siketi lofika mmwamba mwa mawondo ndiponso sankaloledwa kubvala ma buluku. Iwo ankakhulupilira kuti malamulo a kabvalidwe sianali ozinza azimayi koma owateteza ndiponso olimbikitsa kuwapatsa ulemu. Kwa azibambo, mikanda komanso tsitsi lalitali zinkawonedwa ngati anthu ofuna kutsutsa boma, ndipo zinali zoletsedwa. Azibambo ena ankakakamizidwa kukameta tsitsi mphepete mwa dzikoli ngati apolisi atawone kuti tsitsi lawo ndi lalitali. Kumpsyompsyonana pa malo a bwalo kunali koletsedwa ndipo makanema owonetsa anthu a kumpsyopsyonana analinso oletsedwa. Mabuku ambiri amene ankanena za mbiri ya dzikoli a Banda asanayambe kulamulidwa anaotchedwa. Anthu ena amanenanso kuti mafuko ena, makamaka a Chitumbuka ankalondedwa londedwa ndi boma ndipo mabukhu awo ena anali oletsedwa. Azungu amene sankatsatira malamulowa ankapitikitsidwa mu dzikoli.

Makalata ankatsegulidwa komanso matelefoni ankamvetseledwa ndipo anthu akamanena zotsutsa boma ma foni awo ankadulidwa. Munthu wina aliyense wonena zotsutsa a Banda ankamangidwa, kuthamangitsidwa mu dzikoli kapena kuphedwa kumene. Mwachitsanzo, anthu ngati a Kanyama Chiume anathamangitsidwa ndipo anthu ngati a Dick Matenje ndi a Attati Mpakati anaphedwa.

Anthu wonse akulu akuku ankayenera kukhala otsatira chipani cha MCP. Aliyense amayenera kukhala ndi chiphaso cha chipanichi nthawi zonse, ndipo amayenera kuwonetsa chiphasochi akakumana ndi apolisi pena paliponse. Ziphasozi zinagulitsidwa ndi a Malawi Young Pioneers (MYP). Zinkatheka nthawi zina anthuwa kugulitsa ziphasozi kwa ana amene sanabadwe.

Anthu wochokera kunja kwa dzikoli ankayeneranso kutsatila malamulo a kavalidwe. Aliyense wofuna kulowa mdzikoli ankawuzidwa kuti ngati akufuna kukalowa mdzikoli, sayenera kuvala zazifupi kapena ma buluku ngati ali amayi pokha pokha ngati ali ku malo olandilirako alendo. Azibamboa tsitsi lalitali kapena obvala mafuleya sanali wololedwa.

Ngakhale zinali chonchi a Banda anali mmodzi amene ankateteza ufulu wa amayi, poyelekeza ndi atsogoleri ena a ku Africa pa nthawiyi. Iwo anakhazikitsa bungwe la Chitukuko Cha Amai m'Malawi (CCAM) lomwe linkaunika zofuna, zokhudza komanso mwayi wopelekedwa kwa amayi mdziko la Malawi. Bungweli linkawalimbikitsa azimayi kulimbikura ku maphunziro komanso utsogoleri wa dziko, ndiponso kuti adzitenga mbali yaikulu ku madera kwawo, ku mipongo komanso mmabanja awo. Mtsogoleri wa bungweli anali Official Hostess, Cecilia Tamanda Kadzamira.

A Banda anatukula dzikoli ku mbali ya chitukuko. Iwo anatsegula misewu, mabwalo a ndege, zipatala ndi masukulu, poyelekeza ndi boma la chitsamunda. Anakhazikitsa sukulu yofanana ndi sukulu yapamwamba ku Mangalande ya Eton yomwe ankaitchula kuti Kamuzu Academy. Sukuluyi ankasankha ana okhoza bwino ku pulaimale ndipo anawo ankaphunzira aphunziro a pamwamba kuphatikizako chi latini ndi chigiriki ndi aphunzitsi wochokera kunja. Ana olankhula Chichewa ku sukuluyi ankalangidwa.

Pa nthawi yomwe a Banda ankalamulira dziko la Malawi, anapeza Cuma choposa US$320 miliyoni. Iwowanso anali mtsogoleri yekhayo wa ku Africa amene ankagwirizana ndi dziko la South Africa pa nthawi ya Boma la tsankho. Iwo anayamba kugwirizanako ndi atsogoleri ena a ku Africa pamene boma la tsankholi linatha. (Mayiko ena ankagula ndi kugulitsa malonda ku dziko la South Africa koma dziko la Malawi linali lokhalo limene linali ndi ubale wa ukazembe ndi dzikolo.

Kugonjetsedwa ndi boma la zipani zambiri[edit | edit source]

Ulamuliro wa chipani chimodzi wa a Banda unathetsedwa kutachitika chisankho chofunsa anthu mu 1993. Patangopita kanthawi kochepa, gulu lina lomwe linakhazikitsidwa kuunika za ulamuliro wa dzikoli linaachotsa udindo wokhala mtsogoleri wa muyaya komanso mphamvu zambiri zomwe anali nazo.

Mu chaka cha 1994, a Banda anayima nawo chisankho cha zipani zambiri ngakhale kunkamveka mphekesera zakuti iwo anali kudwala. A Bakili Muluzi ndi amene anapambana chisankhochi. Iwo anali a chiyao ndipo utsogoleri wawo unalinso ndi mavuto ena. A Banda anamwalira ku South Africa mu Novembala 1997 ali ndi zaka 101. chipani cha MCP chomwe iwo analandira utsogoleri kuchokera kwa a Orton Chirwa chinakalibe ndi mphamvu pa nkhani ya ndale ya dzikoli.