Malaŵi

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Malaŵi

Mbendera ya Malaŵi
Mbendera

Chikopa ya Malaŵi
Chikopa

Nyimbo ya utundu: Mlungu dalitsani Malaŵi

Malaŵi ku Afrika

Chinenero ya ndzika Chichewa
Mzinda wa mfumu Lilongwe
Boma Republic
Chipembedzo Protestant 55%, Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%
Maonekedwe
% pa madzi
118,480 km²
20%
Munthu
Kuchuluka:
11.7 million
98/km²
Ndalama kwacha ya Malaŵi (MAK)
Zone ya nthawi UTC +1
Tsiku ya mtundu 6th July
Internet | Code | Tel. .mw | MWI | 265
Otter Point, Cape Macclear

Dziko la Malaŵi lomwe kale linkatchulidwa kuti Nyasaland, ndi dziko la demokilase lomwe lili ndi anthu ambiri ndipo lili cha ku m’mwera kwa Africa. Dzikoli linayandikana ndi Zambia cha ku madzulo, Tanzania cha ky mpoto ndi Mozambique kuzungulira kim’mawa, kummwera ndi ku madzulo. Chiyambi cha dzina loti Malawi sichidziwika bwino bwino, koma anthu ofufuza amakhulupilira kuti dzinali linachokela kwa chilankhulo cha anthu a mu dzikoli a ku chigawo cha kummwera, ndipo limatanthauza “malawi a moto”, koma mbendela ya dzikoli limatanthauza "kwacha" kunena kuti dzuwa lawala mmamawa.

Mbiri[edit | edit source]

Anthu oyamba mu dziko la Malawi anali a chi Khoisa, amene ankachita ulenje komanso kutolela zakudya zomera zokha. Anthu a Chibantu anabwera ku dzikoli nthawi wa kusamuka kwa anthu a chi Bantu. Dziko lomwe limatchulidwa kuti Malawi panoli ndi dera la Maravi, lomwe linakhazikitsidwa ndi anthu a Chichewa mu zaka za ku ma 1600. Achewa anali ochokera ku gulu la anthu lotchedwa ma Luba. Koyambilira ndi pakati pa zaka za mma 1900, anthu a Chizulu ochokela ku Ndandwe, KwaZulu-Natal mziko la South Africa,omwe ali Angoni amene mfumu yawo inali Zwangedaba.

Munthu woyambilira wa Chizungu amene anabwera ku Malawi anali Davide Living’isitoni. Iyeyu anafika ku chigwa cha kumpoto cha Nyanja ya Malawi mchaka cha 1859 ndipo ma tchalitchi a chi Sikotishi anatsatila m’mbuyo mwake kudzakhazikitsa ma tchalitchi. Boma la Britain linakhazikhitsa Nyasaland Protectorate mu chaka cha 1907.

Ndale[edit | edit source]

Dziko la Britain linalamulila mpaka chaka cha 1964, ngakhale anthu ena a Chimalawi anayeseysa kupeza ufulu wodzilamulira wokha. Mu zaka za m’ma 1950, nkhani yofuna ufulu wodzilamulira inakula, maka maka pamene dziko la Britain linakhazikitsa Chitaganya cha Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland mu chaka cha 1953. Mu 1958, Dokotala Hastings Kamuzu Banda anabwelera ku dzikoli atachokako kwa nthawi yaitali. Iyeyu anakhala mtsogoleli wa chipani cha Nyasaland African Congress chomwe pambuyo chinasinthidwa dzina kukhala Malawi Congress Party (MCP). Mu chaka cha 1959, Banda anamangidwa ndipo anatumizidwa ku Gweru Prison mu dziko la Southern Rhodesia (lomwe pano limatchedwa Zimbabwe chifukwa cha ndale zofuna kuti dzikoli lidzizilamulira lokha. Iyeyu anamasulidwa chaka cha 1960 pamene analoledwa kupita ku London mdziko la Britain kukatenga mbali pa msokhano wokambirana za malamulo. Pa 5 April 1961, chipani cha MCP chinapambana kuponsa zipani zonse pa chisankho chokhazikitsa ulamuliro wa tsopano. Ku msonkhano wokambirana za malamulo olamurira dziko ku London m’mwezi wa Novembala mu chaka cha 1962, boma la Britain linabvomera kuti Nyasaland likhale dziko lodzilamulira pa lokha. Chisankho chimenechi chinathetsa chitaganya cha Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland, chifukha dziko la Nyasaland likanakhala lodziimira pa lokha. Banda ansankhidwa kukhala Prime Minister pa 1 Febuluale 1963 ngakhale boma la Britain linkalamulirabe nkhani za chuma, chitetezo komanso ulamuliro wa dzikoli. Malamulo a tsopano olamulira dziko anakhazikitsidwa m’mwezi wa Meyi 1963, ndipo chitaganya chinathetsedwa pa 31 Disembala 1963. Dziko la Malawi linapatsidwa ufulu woyima pa lokha pa 6 Julaye 1964. Patapita zaka ziwili, dzikoli linakhala Lipabuliki lomwe Pulezidenti wake anali Dr. Banda ndipo analitchula kuti dziko lokhala ndi chipani chimodzi chokha. Mu 1970, Banda anapatsidwa u Pulezidenti wamuyaya wa MCP, ndipo 1971 anapatsidwa u Pulezidenti wa muyaya wa dziko la Malawi.

Chifukwa cha kukula kwa kusakhutilitsidwa ndi ulamuliro wa Dr Banda, ndiponso makalata wolembedwa ndi mipingo ndiponso zonena za mabungwe osakhala a boma, dziko la Malawi linapangitsa Referendamu yomwe anthu anafunsidwa boma lomwe iwo ankafuna. Pa 14 June 1993, anthu ochuluka a dzikoli anasankha kuti dzikoli likhale la zipani zambiri. Chisankho chinapangidwa pa 17 May 1994 ndipo Bakili Muluzi amene anali mtsogoleli wa United Democratic Front (UDF). Chipani cha UDF chinatenga mipando 82 mwa mipando 177 ya ku Nyumba yolamulira boma ndipo chinakhazikitsa mgwirizano ndi chipani cha Alliance For Democracy (AFORD). Mgwirizanowu unathetsedwa m’chaka cka 1966 koma ena mwa anthu amene anali a AFORD anatsalilabe m’mboma. Malamulo olamulira dziko amene anakhazikitsidwa mu 1995 anathetsa mphamvu zomwe zinali za chipani cha MCP. Kufulumizitsa kutsegula kwa malonda (economic libelarisation) ndi kukhonzatso kayendetsedwe ka zinthu m’dzikoli kunali mbali ya kusintha kwa ndale kwa dzikoli.

Kusankhanso kwa Pulezidenti wina mu ulamuliro wa demokilase kunachitika mmwezi wa Meyi 2004 pamene woyimila UDF pa chisankhochi a Dr. Bingu wa Muntharika anapambana pa chisanko chomwe a John Tembo woyimira MCP ndi a Gwanda Chakuamba woyimira Mgwirizano Coalition, limene linali gulu lomwe a mipingo ndi azipani zina ankatsatira. Chifukwa cha kampeni ndi dongosolo lomwe Bakili Muluzi anachita, chipani cha UDF chinankhazikitsa boma la zipani zambiri ndi zipani zina zotsutsa boma.


Maboma a Malawi[edit | edit source]


Link[edit | edit source]