BCG vaccine

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Katemera wa Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) ndi katemera amene amaperekedwa pofuna kulimbana ndi matenga a chifuwa chachikulu.[1] M'mayiko amene chifuwa chachikulu n'chofala kwambiri, katemera m'modzi kwa mayi woyembekezera yemwenso ndi wathanzi ndipo watsala pang'ono kubereka mwana.[1] Ana omwe ali ndi HIV/AIDS sayenera kupatsidwa katemerayu.[2] M'madera omwe chifuwa chachikulu si chofala kwenikweni, ana omwe akuoneka kuti akhoza kudwala matenda a chifuwa chachikulu kawirikawiri amapatsidwa mankhwala owateteza ku matendawa pambuyo poti ayezedwa ndi dokotala. Anthu akuluakulu omwe sakudwala chifuwa chachikulu komanso sanalandirepo katemera wa matendawa koma nthawi zambiri amapita kudera lomwe matendawa ndi ofala akuyenera kupatsidwa katemerayu.[1]

Katemerayu amagwira ntchito mosiyanasiyana kwa anthu a misinkhu yosiyanasiyananso, ndipo amatha kugwira ntchito kwa zaka 10 mpaka 20.[1] Kwa ana, katemerayu amateteza pafupifupi 20% ya anawo kuti asatenge matendawa, ndipo kwa omwe tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa talowa kale m'thupi mwawo, amateteza hafu ya anawo kuti asadwale chifuwa chachikulu.[3] Katemerayu amaperekedwa pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya jakisoni.[1] Palibe umboni wotsimikizira kuti kulandira katemera mungapo pa nthawi imodzi kumathandiza kwambiri.[1] Katemera wa BCG angagwiritsidwenso ntchito polimbana ndi mitundu ina ya matenda a khansa ya chikodzodzo.[4]

Nthawi zambiri katemerayu sabweretsa mavuto alionse odetsa nkhawa. Koma mavuto ang'onoang'ono omwe amakhalapo ndi oti pamalo amene munthu wabayidwa jakisoni pamatha kutupa, kufiira, ndiponso pangapweteke kwa kanthawi. Komanso chilonda chaching'ono chingayambe pamalo amene pabayidwa jakisoni ndipo kenako pangachite chipsera chilondacho chikapola. Nthawi zambiri pamakhala mavuto ena amene amachitika kawirikawiri kwa anthu amene ali ndi vuto la chitetezo chochepa m'thupi.Amayi omwe ali oyembekezera sayenera kulandira katemera. Katemerayu anapangidwa kuchokera kutilombo totchedwa Mycobacterium bovis tomwe timapezeka kwambiri mu ng'ombe. Ngakhale kuti tizilombo ta m'katemerayu timakhala tofooka, timakhalabe tamoyo.[1]

Katemera wa BCG anayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito koyamba pa ndi madokotala m'chaka cha 1921.[1] Katemerayu ali m'gulu la m'ndandanda wa mankhwala amene ofunika kwambiri pagulu la mankhwala a World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, omwe amathandiza kwambiri pa nkhani zaumoyo.[5] Mtengo wogulira mankhwalawa pa chipiku unali madola 0.16 pa katemera m'modzi m'chaka cha 2014.[6] Koma ku United States mtengo wake umayambira madola 100 mpaka kufika 200.[7] Ndipo chaka chilichonse ana pafupifupi 100 miliyoni amapatsidwa katemerayu.[1]

Malifalensi[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "BCG Vaccine: WHO position paper" (PDF). Weekly epidemiological record. 4 (79): 25-40. Jan 23, 2014.
  2. "Revised BCG vaccination guidelines for infants at risk for HIV infection" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 82 (21): 193-196. May 25, 2007. PMID 17526121.
  3. Roy, A; Eisenhut, M; Harris, RJ; Rodrigues, LC; Sridhar, S; Habermann, S; Snell, L; Mangtani, P; Adetifa, I; Lalvani, A; Abubakar, I (5 August 2014). "Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 349: g4643. PMID 25097193.
  4. Houghton, BB; Chalasani, V; Hayne, D; Grimison, P; Brown, CS; Patel, MI; Davis, ID; Stockler, MR (May 2013). "Intravesical chemotherapy plus bacille Calmette-Guérin in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis". BJU International. 111 (6): 977–83. PMID 23253618.
  5. "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  6. "Vaccine, Bcg". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  7. Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 312. ISBN 9781284057560.