Katemera wa matenda oumisa khosi

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Katemera wa matenda oumisa khosi ndi katemera amene amaperekedwa kwa anthu pofuna kupewa matenda amene amayambitsidwa ndi tizilombo tochedwa Neisseria meningitidis.[1] Katemerayu ali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndipo amathandiza polimbana ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyananso ya matenda oumisa khosiwa omwe alipo m'magulu monga: A, C, W135, ndiponso Y. Katemerayu amathandiza kwambiri moti anthu oyambira pa 85 mpaka 100 pa anthu 100 aliwonse amene alandira katemerayu amakhala otetezeka kotheratu kumatendawa kwa zaka zosachepera ziwiri.[1] Zimenezi zachititsa kuti m'madera amene anthu ambiri amalandira katemerayu, matenda oumisa khosi ndiponso matenda a sepsis achepe kwambiri mpaka kutsala pang'ono kutheratu.[2][3] Katemerayu amaperekedwa pobaya jakisoni m'minofu kapena pobaya pakhungu.[1]

Bungwe looza za umoyo padziko lonse la World Health Organization limalimbikitsa kuti m'mayiko amene matendawa ndi ofala kwambiri kapena mayiko amene mliri wa matendawa umayamba pafupifupi anthu azilandira katemerayu nthawi ndi nthawi.[1][4] Koma m'mayiko omwe matendawa si ofala, a zaumoyo amalimbikitsa kuti magulu okhawo a anthu amene ali pa chiwopsezo chotenga matendawa ndi omwe akuyenera kulandira katemera wake.[1] M'dera la ku Africa lomwe matenda oumisa khosi ndi ofala mukuchitika nchito yapadera yomwe cholinga chake n'kupereka katemera wa matenda oumisa khosi A kwa anthu onse.[4] Mtundu wa katemerayu womwe umaperekedwa ku Canada ndi ku United States umathandiza kulimbana ndi mitundu yonse inayi ya matendawa ndipo a zaumoyo amalimbikitsa kuti achinyamata a m'mayikowa ayenera kumalandira katemerayu nthawi ndi nthawi chifukwa ndi omwe ali pa chiopsezo chachikulu.[1] Anthu omwe akuganiza zopita ku Mecca ku Hajj amayeneranso kulandira katemerayu.[1]

Katemerayu sabweretsa mavuto alionse odetsa nkhawa. Ena amangomva kupweteka kwa kanthawi ndipo pamalo amene awabaya katemerayu ndipo nthawi zina pamafiira.[1] Palibenso chodetsa nkhawa chilichonse ngati mayi wa pakati atalandira katemerayu.[4] Munthu m'modzi pa anthu opitirira 1 miliyoni aliwonse amene alandira katemerayu ndi omwe amatha kukumana ndi mavuto okulirapo obwera chifukwa cha katemerayu.[1]

Katemera woyamba wa matenda oumisa khosi anayamba kupezeka m'zaka za m'ma 1970.[5] Ndpo katemerayu ali pagulu la mankhwala ofunika kwambiri otchedwa World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, omwe ndi othandiza kwambiri pa nkhani za umoyo.[6] M'chaka cha 2014, mtengo wa chipiku wa katemerayu umayambira pa madola 3.23 mpaka kufika pa 10.77 pa katemera m'modzi.[7] Koma ku United States mtengo wa katemerayu umayambira pa madola 100 mpaka 200 USD.[8]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Meningococcal vaccines: WHO position paper" (PDF). Weekly epidemiological record. 47 (86): 521-540. Nov 2011. PMID 22128384.
  2. Patel, M; Lee, CK (25 January 2005). "Polysaccharide vaccines for preventing serogroup A meningococcal meningitis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD001093. PMID 15674874.
  3. Conterno, LO; Silva Filho, CR; Rüggeberg, JU; Heath, PT (19 July 2006). "Conjugate vaccines for preventing meningococcal C meningitis and septicaemia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001834. PMID 16855979.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine: updated guidance, February 2015" (PDF). Weekly epidemiological record. 8 (90): 57-68. 20 Feb 2015. PMID 25702330.
  5. Barrett, Alan D.T. (2015). Vaccinology : an essential guide. p. 168. ISBN 9780470656167.
  6. "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  7. "Vaccine, Meningococcal". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  8. Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 315. ISBN 9781284057560.