Kudzipha

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Kudzipha ndi chinthu chimene munthu amachita pochotsa moyo wake mwadala n'cholinga choti afe.[1] Kuvutika maganizo, matenda ovutika maganizo, matenda a maganizo, matenda okhudza makhalidwe, ndiponso kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo – kuphatikizapo kumwa mowa mwauchidakwa ndiponso kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala abenzodiazepine, ndi zina mwa zinthu zimene zimachititsa kuti munthu adziphe.[2][3][4] Anthu ena amadzipha ngati njira yachidule yothawira mavuto monga azachuma, mavuto obwera chifukwa chosagwirizana maubale, kapenanso kuvutitsidwa ndi anthu ena.[2][5] Anthu amene achitapo zinthu zosonyeza kuti ankafuna kudzipha ndi amene ali pa chiopsezo chachikulu choti angathe kudzipha nthawi ina m'tsogolomu.[2] Pali njira zambiri zothandiza munthu kuti asadziphe ndipo zina mwa njirazi ndi kuchita zinthu zoti munthu yemwe angadzipheyo asapeze zinthu monga mfuti, mankhwala osokoneza bongo ndiponso poizoni. Njira zinanso ndi kupereka thandizo la chipatala kwa munthu amene ali ndi vuto logwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo; kuthandiza munthuyo kuti amve uthenga kudziwitsa anthu ena ngati munthu wina akufuna kudzipha, ndiponso kuchita zinthu zothandiza kuti zachuma ziyambe kuyenda bwino pa moyo.[2] Ngakhale kuti pali malo oimbira foni ulere ambiri, umboni ukusonyeza kuti malowa sakuthandiza kwenikweni.[6]

Njira zofala kwambiri zimene anthu amagwiritsa ntchito podziphera zimasiyanasiyana m'mayiko osiyanasiyananso.[7] Zina mwa njira zodziphera zimene anthu amagwiritsa ntchito kawirikawiri ndi monga kudzimangirira, kumwa poizoni, ndiponso kudziwombera ndi mfuti.[2][8] Padziko lonse, m'chaka cha 2015 chokha, anthu 828,000 anadzipha, ndipo chiwerengerochi ndi chokwera kwambiri tikayerekezera ndi anthu 712,000 omwe anadzipha mu 1990.[9][10] Zimenezi zikutanthauza kuti pa zinthu zimene zikuchititsa imfa kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi, kudzipha kuli pa nambala 10.[3][11]

Chaka chilichonse, anthu pafupifupi 0.5-1.4% amadzipha, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti anthu 12 pa 100,000 amadzipha chaka chilichonse.[11][12] Anthu atatu pa anthu anayi alionse amene amadzipha padziko lonse amakhala a kapena ochokera m’mayiko osauka.[2] Ndipo kafukufuku akusonyeza kuti azibambo ambiri amadzipha poyerekezera ndi azimayi, ndipo chiwerengero cha azibambo odziphawo n’chokwera ndi 1.5 m’mayiko osauka, koma m’mayiko olemera, chiwerengerochi chimafika pa 3.5.[13] M’madera ambiri, anthu omwe apitirira zaka 70 ndi amene amakonda kudzipha. Koma m’madera ena, anthu a zaka zoyambira pa 15 mpaka 30 ndi omwe amadzipha kwambiri.[13] Mwachitsanzo, mu 2015 anthu ochuluka kwambiri amene anadzipha anali a ku Ulaya.[14] Ndipo zikuoneka kuti chaka chilichonse, anthu oyambira pa 10 miliyoni mpaka 20 miliyoni amachita zinthu zofuna kudzipha.[15] Anthu omwe anayesera kudzipha koma sanafe nthawi zambiri amavulala ngakhalenso kulumala kumene.[12] M’mayiko a ku Ulaya ndi ku America, anthu ochuluka zedi amene amadzipha kapena kuchita zinthu zofuna kudzipha amakhala achinyamata ndiponso akazi.[12]

Anthu amadzipha pazifukwa zosiyanasiyanamonga zokhudza chipembedzo, kufuna ulemu, kapenanso kukhala ndi moyo wopanda tanthauzo.[16][17] Chipembedzo cha Abulahamu chimaona kuti kudzipha ndi lochimwira Mulungu, ndipo anthu a m’chipembedzochi amakhulupirira zimenezi chifukwa amaona kuti moyo ndi wopatulika.[18] M'nthawi ya chisamurai ku Japan, mwambo wodzipha wotchedwa seppuku (harakiri) unkaonedwa kuti ndi wovomerezeka chikwa anthu ankakhulupirira kuti ndi njira yokonzera zimene munthu walakwitsa kapenanso kuti njira yochitira zionetsero zosonyeza kusakondwa ndi zinazake.[19] Mwambo winanso wotchedwa Sati, womwe unathetsedwa ndi a British Raj, unkachitika m’njira yakuti namfedwa wamkazi wa ku Indiya ankafunika kudzipha podziponya pamoto wa maliro a mwamuna wake. Mkaziyo ankafunika kuchita zimenezi kaya mwakufuna kwake kapena mochita kukakamizidwa ndi achibale ake ngakhalenso anthu ena.[20] M’mbuyomu, mayiko ambiri a ku Ulaya ndi ku America anali ndi lamulo loletsa kudzipha komanso kuchita zinthu zofuna kudzipha, koma masiku ano, lamulo limeneli linathetsedwa m’mayikowo.[21] Komabe, mayiko ambiri ngakhalenso kuchita zinthu zosonyeza kuti munthu akufuna kudzipha.[22] M’zaka za m’ma 1900 komanso m’ma 2000, anthu ena akhala akudzipha mwa apo ndi apo ngati njira yochitira ziwonetsero zosonyeza kusakondwa ndi zinazake ndipo njira yodzipherayi imatchedwa kamikazekomanso zigawenga zakhala zikudzipha pophulitsa mabomba a timkenawo komanso pofuna kupha anthu ena.Template:TOC limit [23]


References[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary (28th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7817-3390-8.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Suicide Fact sheet N°398". WHO. April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Hawton K, van Heeringen K (April 2009). "Suicide". Lancet. 373 (9672): 1372–81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60372-X. PMID 19376453.
  4. Dodds TJ (March 2017). "Prescribed Benzodiazepines and Suicide Risk: A Review of the Literature". The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. 19 (2). doi:10.4088/PCC.16r02037. PMID 28257172.
  5. Bottino SM, Bottino CM, Regina CG, Correia AV, Ribeiro WS (March 2015). "Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review". Cadernos De Saude Publica. 31 (3): 463–75. doi:10.1590/0102-311x00036114. PMID 25859714.
  6. Sakinofsky I (June 2007). "The current evidence base for the clinical care of suicidal patients: strengths and weaknesses". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie. 52 (6 Suppl 1): 7S–20S. PMID 17824349.
  7. Yip PS, Caine E, Yousuf S, Chang SS, Wu KC, Chen YY (June 2012). "Means restriction for suicide prevention". Lancet. 379 (9834): 2393–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60521-2. PMID 22726520.
  8. Ajdacic-Gross V, Weiss MG, Ring M, Hepp U, Bopp M, Gutzwiller F, Rössler W (September 2008). "Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (9): 726–32. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.043489. PMC 2649482. PMID 18797649.
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named GBD2015De
  10. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Värnik P (March 2012). "Suicide in the world". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 9 (3): 760–71. doi:10.3390/ijerph9030760. PMC 3367275. PMID 22690161.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Chang B, Gitlin D, Patel R (September 2011). "The depressed patient and suicidal patient in the emergency department: evidence-based management and treatment strategies". Emergency Medicine Practice. 13 (9): 1–23, quiz 23–4. PMID 22164363.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Preventing suicide: a global imperative. WHO. 2014. pp. 7, 20, 40. ISBN 9789241564779.
  14. "Suicide rates per (100 000 population)". World Health Organization.
  15. Bertolote JM, Fleischmann A (October 2002). "Suicide and psychiatric diagnosis: a worldwide perspective". World Psychiatry. 1 (3): 181–5. PMC 1489848. PMID 16946849.
  16. Tomer A (2013). Existential and Spiritual Issues in Death Attitudes. Psychology Press. p. 282. ISBN 9781136676901.
  17. Ritzer eb, Stepnisky J (2011). The Wiley-Blackwell companion to major social theorists. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 65. ISBN 9781444396607.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  18. God, Religion, Science, Nature, Culture, and Morality. Archway Publishing. 2014. p. 254. ISBN 9781480811249.
  19. Colt, George Howe (1992). The enigma of suicide (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 139. ISBN 9780671760717.
  20. "Indian woman commits sati suicide". Bbc.co.uk. 2002-08-07. Archived from the original on 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
  21. White T (2010). Working with suicidal individuals : a guide to providing understanding, assessment and support. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84905-115-6.
  22. Lester D (2006). "Suicide and islam". Archives of Suicide Research. 10 (1): 77–97. doi:10.1080/13811110500318489. PMID 16287698.
  23. Aggarwal N (2009). "Rethinking suicide bombing". Crisis. 30 (2): 94–7. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.30.2.94. PMID 19525169.

Further reading[edit | sintha gwero]

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External links[edit | sintha gwero]

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