Meningococcal vaccine

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Katemera wa matenda oumisa khosi ndi katemera yemwe amateteza munthu ku Neisseria meningitidis.[1] Pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya katemera mogwirizana ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyananso ya matendawa, ndipo anaikidwa m'magulu awa: A, C, W135, ndi Y. Anthu oyambira pa 85 mpaka 100 pa 100 aliwonse amene alandira katemerayu amakhala otetezeka ku matendawa ndipo katemerayu amagwira ntchito m'thupi la munthu mpaka kwa zaka ziwiri.[1] M'madera amene anthu ambiri analandira katemerayu, matenda oumisa khosi ndiponso sepsis zachepa kwambiri.[2][3] Katemerayu amatha kuperekedwa pobaya jakisoni m'minofu kapena pobaya pakhungu.[1]

Bungwe la World Health Organization limalimbikitsa mayiko amene chiwerengero cha anthu odwala matendawa ndi chokwera kwambiri kapena mayiko amene kumachitikachitika mliri wa matendawa kuti nthawi ndi nthawi azipereka katemera kwa anthu awo.[1][4] M'mayiko amene matendawa si ofala kwenikweni, madokotala amalimbikitsa zoti anthu okhawo amene angatenge matendawa mosavuta ndiwo ayenera kulandira katemerayu.[1] M'dera la ku Africa lomwe limadziwika kuti la matenda oumisa khosi pali zoyesayesa zoti zonthu onse oyambira pa chaka chimodzi mpaka zaka 30 alandire katemera wa metendawa wotchedwa katemera wa conjugate.[4] Ku Canada ndi ku United States katemera wothandiza kulimbana ndi mitundu yonse ya matenda oumisa khosi amayenera kuperekedwa kwa achinyamata onse ndiponso kwa anthu ena amene angatenge matendawa mosavuta.[1] Anthu onse amene amapita ku Mecca ku Hajj amayeneranso kulandira katemerayu.[1]

Katemerayu amayenera kuperekedwa m'njira imene singayambitse mavuto ena odetsa nkhawa. Ena mwa anthu amene alandira katemerayu amamva ululu pamalo pamene abayidwapo komanso pamafiira.[1] Zikuonekanso kuti katemerayu azimayi apakati akhoza kulandira katemerayu chifukwa sayambitsa mavuto aliwonse kwa amayi otere.[4] Ndipo ndi munthu m'modzi yekha pa anthu 1 miliyoni omwe alandira katemerayu omwe amakumana ndi mavuto ena obwera chifukwa cha katemerayu.[1]Katemera wa matenda oumisa khosi anayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito koyambirira m'zaka za m'ma 1970.[5] Ndipotu katemerayu ali pagulu la World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, yemwe ndi katemera wofunika kwambiri pa moyo wa munthu amene ayenera kuperekedwa ndi a zaumoyo komanso a zachipatala.[6] Mtengo wogulitsira katemera m'modzi pachipiku unali woyambira pa madola a ku America 3.23 mpaka 10.77 USD m'chaka cha 2014.[7] Koma ku United States mtengo wa katemerayu umayambira pa madola 100 mpaka 200.[8]

Malifalensi[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Meningococcal vaccines: WHO position paper" (PDF). Weekly epidemiological record. 47 (86): 521-540. Nov 2011. PMID 22128384.
  2. Patel, M; Lee, CK (25 January 2005). "Polysaccharide vaccines for preventing serogroup A meningococcal meningitis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD001093. PMID 15674874.
  3. Conterno, LO; Silva Filho, CR; Rüggeberg, JU; Heath, PT (19 July 2006). "Conjugate vaccines for preventing meningococcal C meningitis and septicaemia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001834. PMID 16855979.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine: updated guidance, February 2015" (PDF). Weekly epidemiological record. 8 (90): 57-68. 20 Feb 2015. PMID 25702330.
  5. Barrett, Alan D.T. (2015). Vaccinology : an essential guide. p. 168. ISBN 9780470656167.
  6. "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  7. "Vaccine, Meningococcal". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  8. Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 315. ISBN 9781284057560.