Mtengo ukumeza

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Mnyamata uyu ali ndi nthenga imodzi yokha kapena iwiri yobiriwira yomwe imamera pamphepete mwake.

Mtengo ukumeza kapena Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) ndi mbalame yosamukira ku Hirundinidae. Kupezeka ku America, mtengo unameza unayamba kufotokozedwa mu 1807 ndi Louis Vieillot, yemwe ndi nyamakazi wa ku France monga Hirundo bicolor. Zachokera kale kumtundu wake, Tachycineta, kumene kulimbikitsana kwake kumakhala kukangana. Mtengo wakumeza umakhala ndi mapiko okongola a buluu, opatulapo mapiko a wakuda ndi mchira, ndi zoyera pansi. Ndalamayi ndi yakuda, maso ndi ofiira, ndipo miyendo ndi mapazi ndizofiira. Mkaziyo amakhala wodetsedwa kwambiri kuposa wamwamuna, ndipo mkazi wazaka zoyamba amakhala ndi ziphuphu zambiri za bulauni, ndi nthenga zina zakuda. Amunawa ali ndi zofiira zofiirira, ndi mawere otsukira-bulauni. Mitengo imadyera ku US ndi Canada. Ndi nyengo yachisanu m'mphepete mwa kum'mwera kwa US, kumbali ya Gulf Coast, ku Panama ndi gombe lakumpoto chakumadzulo kwa South America, ndi ku West Indies.

Mtengowo umameka kumadyerera m'magulu awiri kapena m'magulumagulu, muzinthu zonse zachilengedwe. Kubereka kungayambe kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May, ngakhale kuti tsikuli likupita patsogolo chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo, ndipo lingathe kutha mochedwa July. Mbalameyi nthawi zambiri imakhala yokhazikika pakati pawo (ngakhale kuti amuna 8% ndi amodzi), ali ndi maubwenzi apamwamba. Izi zikhoza kupindulitsa abambo, koma popeza amayi amawongolera kukangana, kusowa kwa chisankho pa momwe khalidweli limapindulira akazi kumapangitsa kuti anthu ambiri azidabwa kwambiri. Mkaziyo amalowetsamo kabuku kawiri mpaka eyiti (koma kawiri kawiri mpaka asanu ndi awiri) mazira woyera oyera, kawirikawiri masiku 14 mpaka 15. Nkhuku zimathamanga pang'ono monga asynchronously, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti amai aziika patsogolo zomwe zimadyetsa kudyetsa chakudya panthawi ya kusowa kwa chakudya. Nkhuku zambiri zimagwiritsa ntchito masiku 18 mpaka 22 mutatha. Mtengo umame nthawi zina umawoneka ngati thupi, chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa kafukufuku wopangidwa.

Mitengo ya mlengalenga, mtengo umameza onse awiri okha ndi magulu, amadya makamaka tizilombo. Mamasukiloni, akangaude, ndi zipatso amapezeka mumadya. Nthendu, monga wamkulu, zimadya makamaka tizilombo, timadyetsedwa ndi mwamuna ndi mkazi. Izi zowonongeka zimakhala zovuta ku ziphuphu, koma, pamene zinyama zazing'ono, izi sizikuwonongeka. Zotsatira za matenda zingakhale zolimba ngati mtengo ukumeza kumakula, monga mbali zina za chitetezo cha mthupi zimachepera ndi msinkhu. Mwachitsanzo, kuteteza chitetezo cha m'thupi mwa T kumachepetsa ndi msinkhu, pomwe matenda onse osatetezeka omwe amatha kukhala nawo komanso osadziwika. Chifukwa cha kukula kwake kwakukulu ndi kosasunthika, mtengo ukumeza ukuonedwa ngati osasamala ndi International Union for Conservation of Chilengedwe. Ku US, imatetezedwa ndi Chigwirizano cha Mbalame Yotuluka M'chaka cha 1918, ndi ku Canada ndi Msonkhano Wokonzera Mbalame Zosamuka. Kumeza kumeneku kumakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi ntchito za anthu, monga kuchotsa nkhalango; Nyanja zamadzimadzi zimatha kukakamiza mtengo wozomera kuti uzipita kutali kuti ukapeze chakudya cha calcium kuti udyetse anapiye ake.

Kufotokozera[edit | sintha gwero]

Mtengowu umakhala ndi pakati pa 12 ndi 14 cm (4.7 ndi 5.5) ndipo umakhala wolemera pafupifupi 17 mpaka 25.5 g (0,60 mpaka 0,90 oz). Amunawa amakhala ndi mapiko a mdima wobiriwira, mapiko ndi mchira kukhala wakuda. Pansi ndi tsaya chigamba ndi zoyera, ngakhale kuti mapiko omwe ali pansi ndi ofiira. Ndalamazo ndi zakuda, maso ndi ofiira, ndipo miyendo ndi mapazi ndizofiira. Mzimayi amatha kusiyanitsidwa ndi mwamuna ngati poyamba ndi duller, ndipo nthawizina amakhala ndi mutu wa bulauni. Mkazi wa zaka zoyamba ali ndi mawonekedwe a bulauni, ndi nambala yosiyanasiyana ya nthenga za buluu. Kufiira kofiira kofiira kumakhala ndi ntchito yolola kuti kufufuza malo obisala, monga wamphongo kawirikawiri kumakhala kosautsa kwa mkazi wa zaka zoyamba. Mkazi wachiwiri wazaka zina nthawi zina amakhala ndi nyemba zofiira. Amunawa amatha kusiyanitsa ndi maonekedwe awo a bulauni ndi mawere oviika-bulauni.

Mawu[edit | sintha gwero]

Nyimbo ya mtengo wa swallow imakhala zolemba zitatu zotsalira ndikutsika kumapeto kwa zida zamadzi. Nyimbo iyi imabwerezedwa. Kufuula kwake ndi "peeh" kapena "pee-deeh";[1] kuitana kumeneku kungathetseretu achikulire omwe akupempha pamene chilombo chili pafupi.[2]

Zolemba[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. Turner, A. (2017). del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David A.; de Juana, Eduardo, eds. "Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 10 December 2017. (Subscription required (help)).
  2. McIntyre, Emma; Horn, Andrew G.; Leonard, Marty L. (2014). "Do nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) respond to parental alarm calls?". The Auk. 131 (3): 314–320. doi:10.1642/AUK-13-235.1. ISSN 0004-8038.