Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (wobadwa Rolihlahla Mandela: 18 Julayi 1918 - 5 Disembala 2013) anali waku South Africa wotsutsana ndi tsankho, wandale komanso wopereka mphatso zachifundo yemwe anali Purezidenti woyamba wa South Africa kuyambira 1994 mpaka 1999. Iye anali mtsogoleri woyamba wakuda mdzikolo Boma ndi woyamba kusankhidwa pachisankho chokomera anthu onse. Boma lake lidalimbikira kuthetsa cholowa cha tsankho polimbana ndi tsankho komanso kulimbikitsa mgwirizano pakati pa mitundu. Poganiza kuti ndi wokonda dziko la Africa komanso wachisosholizimu, adakhala Purezidenti wa chipani cha African National Congress (ANC) kuyambira 1991 mpaka 1997.

Mneneri waku Xhosa, a Mandela adabadwira m'banja lachifumu la Thembu ku Mvezo, Union of South Africa. Anaphunzira zamalamulo ku University of Fort Hare komanso University of Witwatersrand asanagwire ntchito ngati loya ku Johannesburg. Kumeneko adayamba kuchita nawo zandale zotsutsana ndi atsamunda komanso za ku Africa, kulowa nawo ANC mu 1943 ndikupanga mgwirizano wake wachinyamata mu 1944. Boma loyera lokha la National Party litakhazikitsa tsankho, njira yosankhana mitundu yomwe idapatsa mwayi azungu, a Mandela ndi a Mandela. ANC idadzipereka kuti iwonongedwe. Adasankhidwa kukhala Purezidenti wa nthambi ya ANC ku Transvaal, ndikukwera kutchuka chifukwa chotenga nawo gawo pa 1952 Defiance Campaign ndi 1955 Congress of the People. Anamangidwa mobwerezabwereza chifukwa chochita zinthu zoukira boma ndipo sanamuyankhe bwino mu 1956 Treason Trial. Mothandizidwa ndi Marxism, adalowa mgulu la South African Communist Party (SACP) loletsedwa. Ngakhale adayamba kuchita zionetsero zopanda chiwawa, mothandizana ndi SACP adakhazikitsa gulu lankhondo la Umkhonto we Sizwe mu 1961 ndipo adatsogolera kampeni yolimbana ndi boma. Anamangidwa ndikuikidwa m'ndende mu 1962, ndipo pambuyo pake anaweruzidwa kuti akhale m'ndende moyo wonse chifukwa chofuna kugwetsa boma pambuyo pozengedwa mlandu ku Rivonia Trial.

Mandela adakhala m'ndende zaka 27, adagawanika pakati pa Robben Island, Prollmooor Prison ndi ndende ya Victor Verster. Pakati pa zovuta zakunyumba komanso zapadziko lonse lapansi komanso mantha a nkhondo yapachiweniweni, Purezidenti FW de Klerk adamumasula mu 1990. Mandela ndi de Klerk adatsogolera zoyesayesa zokambirana zothana ndi tsankho, zomwe zidabweretsa chisankho cha 1994 chamitundu yosiyanasiyana pomwe Mandela adatsogolera ANC kupambana ndikukhala purezidenti. Potsogolera boma logwirizana lomwe limakhazikitsa lamulo latsopano, a Mandela adatsimikiza kuyanjananso pakati pa magulu amtundu mdzikolo ndikupanga Commission ya Choonadi ndi Kuyanjanitsa kuti ifufuze za kuphwanya ufulu wakale wa anthu. Mwachuma, oyang'anira ake adasungabe zomwe zidakonzedweratu ngakhale zidali zachikhulupiliro chake, komanso kukhazikitsa njira zolimbikitsira kukonzanso nthaka, kuthana ndi umphawi ndikukulitsa ntchito zazaumoyo. Padziko lonse lapansi, a Mandela adakhala mkhalapakati pamilandu yophulitsa bomba ya Pan Am Flight 103 ndipo adakhala mlembi wamkulu wa Non-Aligned Movement kuyambira 1998 mpaka 1999. Adakana chigamulo chachiwiri cha purezidenti ndipo adatsatiridwa ndi wachiwiri wawo, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela adakhala mtsogoleri wachikulire ndipo adayesetsa kuthana ndi umphawi ndi HIV / Edzi kudzera mu bungwe lachifundo la Nelson Mandela Foundation.

Mandela anali wotsutsana naye m'moyo wake wonse. Ngakhale otsutsa kumanja adamunena kuti anali wachigawenga wachikomyunizimu ndipo omwe anali kumanzere kumamuwona ngati wofunitsitsa kukambirana ndi kuyanjananso ndi omwe adathandizira atsankho, adatchuka padziko lonse lapansi chifukwa chachitetezo chake. Amadziwika kuti ndi chithunzi cha demokalase komanso chilungamo chachitukuko, adalandira ulemu wopitilira 250, kuphatikiza Mphotho ya Nobel Peace. Amalemekezedwa kwambiri ku South Africa, komwe amatchulidwatchulidwa ndi dzina lachifumu la Thembu, Madiba, ndipo amatchedwa "Tate wa Fuko".[1]

Zolemba[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  1. Mandela used the spelling Rolihlahla, see for example official website. Peter Mtuze notes that the orthography of Xhosa names has changed since the time of Mandela's schooling, and that it would now be written Rholihlahla. (Mandela's Long Walk to Freedom: the isiXhosa translator's tall order. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2003, 21(3), 141–152.)