Plato

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Plato. Mabole amtengo wapatali, chojambula cha chithunzi chopangidwa ndi Silanion ca. 370 BC kwa Academia ku Athens. Kuchokera kumalo opatulika ku Largo Argentina.

Plato anali mmodzi wa akatswiri achifilosofi Achigiriki. Anakhala kuyambira 427 BC mpaka 348 BC. Iye anali wophunzira wa Socrates ndi mphunzitsi wa Aristotle. Plato analemba za maganizo ambiri mu filosofi omwe adakalipo lero. Wofilosofi wamakono, (Alfred North Whitehead), ananena kuti filosofi yonse kuyambira Plato yakhala yongotchulapo za ntchito zake. Ambiri amadziwika kuti ndi ofunika kwambiri pakukula kwa filosofi, makamaka miyambo ya kumadzulo. Mosiyana ndi anthu ake onse afilosofi, ntchito yonse ya Plato ikukhulupirira kuti yapulumuka kwa zaka zoposa 2,400.

Pogwirizana ndi aphunzitsi ake, Socrates, ndi wophunzira wake wotchuka kwambiri, Aristotle, Plato anakhazikitsa maziko a filosofi ya sayansi ndi sayansi. Kuphatikiza pa kukhala maziko a sayansi ya azungu, filosofi, ndi masamu, Plato amanenanso kuti ndi mmodzi mwa omwe anayambitsa chipembedzo chakumadzulo ndi zauzimu. Plato anali watsopano wa zokambirana zolembedwa ndi dialectic mu filosofi. Plato akuwoneka kuti ndiye amene anayambitsa zafilosofi zapakati pa Western, ndi Republic, ndi Malamulo pakati pa zokambirana zina, kupereka zina mwa mankhwala oyamba kwambiri a mafunso a ndale kuchokera ku filosofi. Zomwe akatswiri a Plato amagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri zimaganiziridwa kuti ndi Socrates, Parmenides, Heraclitus ndi Pythagoras, ngakhale kuti ochepa chabe mwa omwe analipo kale analibe ntchito ndipo zambiri zomwe timadziwa zokhudza chiwerengerochi lero zimachokera kwa Plato mwiniwakeyo

Kubadwa ndi banja[edit | edit source]

Nthaŵi yeniyeni ndi malo a kubadwa kwa Plato sizodziwika, komabe n'zodziwikiratu kuti iye anali wa banja lolemekezeka komanso lopambana. Malingana ndi magwero akale, akatswiri ambiri amakono amakhulupirira kuti anabadwira ku Athens kapena Aegina pakati pa 429 ndi 423 BC. Bambo ake anali Ariston. Malingana ndi mwambo wotsutsana, wolembedwa ndi Diogenes Laertius, Ariston anafotokoza kuti anachokera kwa mfumu ya Atene, Codrus, ndi mfumu ya Messenia, Melanthus. [9] Amayi ake a Plato anali Perisiya, omwe banja lawo linadzitamandira kuti anali ndi chiyanjano ndi wolemba mbiri wotchuka wa Athene komanso wolemba ndakatulo Solon. Perusee anali mlongo wa Charmides ndi mwana wamwamuna wa Critias, onse olemekezeka a makumi atatu, omwe anali ogargarchi, omwe adatsatiridwa ndi Athene kumapeto kwa nkhondo ya Peloponnesian (404-403 BC). Kuwonjezera pa Plato mwiniwake, Ariston ndi Perisiya anali ndi ana ena atatu; awa anali ana aamuna awiri, Adeimantus ndi Glaucon, ndi Potone wamkazi, mayi wa Speusippus (mphwake ndi wolowa m'malo mwa Plato monga mkulu wa maphunziro ake a filosofi). Abale Adeimantus ndi Glaucon amatchulidwa ku Republic monga ana a Ariston, ndipo ayenera kuti anali abale a Plato, koma ena adatsutsa kuti anali amalume. Koma mu zochitika za Memorabilia, Xenophon anasokoneza nkhaniyo poonetsa Glaucon wamng'ono kuposa Plato.

Imfa[edit | edit source]

Zolemba zosiyanasiyana zapereka nkhani za imfa ya Plato. Nkhani imodzi, yolembedwa pamanja,[1] imasonyeza kuti Plato anamwalira pabedi lake, pamene msungwana wamng'ono wa Thracian ankaimba chitoliro kwa iye. Plato anamwalira pa phwando laukwati. Nkhaniyi imachokera pa zolemba za Diogenes Laertius pa nkhani ya Hermippus, wa ku Alexandria wa m'zaka za zana lachitatu. Malinga ndi[2] Tertullian, Plato anangomwalira ali mtulo.[2]

Ndemanga[edit | edit source]

  1. Riginos 1976, p. 194.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Riginos 1976, p. 195.