Yesu Kristu

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Christ Carrying the Cross 1580.jpg

Yesu Kristu

Yesu (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE)[1], amene amatchulidwanso kuti Yesu wa ku Nazareti, ndi mzati wa chi Khristu. Iye amatchulidwanso ndi dzina loti Yesu Khristu, lomwe linachokela potanthauzila ku Chizungu dzina lake la chi Helene Iēsous, lomwenso linachokela pophatikiza dzina la chi Yuda Yehoshua, lomwe limatanthauza kuyi "Yehova ndiye Chipulumutso", pomwe Khristu ndi mutu wochokera ku chi Helene Christós, kutanthauza "Wodzodzedwa", ndipo limafanana ndi liu la chi Yuda "Mesiya" [1]

Zambiri zokhudza moyo wa Yesu ndi ziphunzitso zake zinachokela ku ma bukhu a uthenga wa bwino a mu Chipangano cha Tsopano a Mateyu, Maliko, Luka ndi Yohane. Akachenjede pa nkhani za mbiri ndi baibulo amagwirizana kuti Yesu anali mu Yuda wa ku Galile, ankadziwika kuti ndi mphuzitsi andi mchilitsi, anabatizidwa ndi Yohane mmbatizi, anapachikidwa ku Yelusalemu malinga ndi chigamulo cha mtsogoleri wa chi Roma Pilato pa mlandu wogalamukira boma la chi Roma.[2][3] A kachenjede ena ochepa amakayikira umoyo wa Yesu mu mburi ya dziko la pansi, ndipo ena amanena kuti Yesu Khristu ndi nthano chabe.[4]

A Khristu amakhulupilira kuti Yesu ndi Mpulumutsi ndipo kubwera kwake kunanenedwa mu Chipangano cha Kale ndipo amakhulupilira kuti anauka kwa akufa. A Khristu ambiri amakhulupiliranso kuti Yesu ndi Mulungu amene anabwera kuzapeleka chipulumutso ndi kuyanjanitsanso munthu ndi Mulungu. A Khristu amene sakhulupilira zoti Mulungu ndi m'modzi mwa atatu amatanthauzira mosiyana siyana za uMulungu wake (onani m'musimu). Zikhulupiriro zina za chi Khristu ndi zakuti anabadwa kwa mzimayi, anachita zozizwa ali pa dziko la pansi, anakwanilitsa zomwe zinaneneredwa mu Chipangano cha Kale, anakwela kumwamba ndipo adzabweranso kudzatenga oyera mtima.

Ku chi Silamu, Yesu, (Arabic: عيسى,kutanthauza kwake Isa) amatengedwa kuti ndi m'neneri wokondedwa was Mulungu, amene anabweretsa mau a Mulungu, wochita zozizwa ndiponso kuti ndi Mpulumutsi. Asilamu koma sabvomerezana ndi chikhulupiliro cha Akhristu chakuti Yesu anapachikidwa pa mtanda, ndi kutinso ndi Mulungu. Asilamu amakhulupilira kuti kukhomeleredwa pa mtanda kwa Yesu ndi masomphenya chabe koma Yesuyo anakweradi ku mwamba ndi thupi lake. Asilamu ambiri amakhulupiliranso kuti Yesu adzabweranso ndi Mahdi dziko likadzadzala ndi uchimo ndi kusowa chilungamo pa nthawi ya kubwera kwa woyipayo wa ku Chisilamu Dajjal.

Mbiri[edit | edit source]

Nkhani ya kubadwa kwa Yesu imalongosoledwa bwino mu Uthenga wa bwino wa Mateyo(lomwe limafanizidwa kuti linalembedwa pakati pa 65 ndi 90 AD/CE)[5] ndi bukhu la Luka lomwe limafanizidwa kuti linalembedwa pakati pa 65 ndi 100 AD/CE)[6]. Anthu ozama pa za maphunziro amapanga mtsutso pa dongosolo la m'mene Yesu anabadwira, ndipo ochepa ndi amene amanena kuti amadziwa zaka zomwe Yesu anabadwa ndi kumwalila.

Nkhani ya kubwadwa ka Yesu mu Chipangano cha Tsopano m'mabukhu a Mateyu ndi Luka sanena tsiku kapena nyengo imene Yesu anabadwa. Mu Chikhristu cha ku azungu, 25 December ndi tsiku lomwe amakumbukira kubadwa ka Yesu. Tsikuli linayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito cha m'ma 330 AD pakati pa Akhristu a chi Roma. Asanayambe kutero, ndiponso mpaka masiku ano mu Chikhristu cha mayiko a kumadzulo, kubadwa kwa Yesu kumakumbukulidwa pa 6 January ngati mbali ya phwando la Theophany [7], lomwe limadziwikanso ndi kuti Epiphany, lomwe ndi phwando losangalala kubwela pa dziko la pansi kwa Mulungu, konwe ena amatchula kuti ndi tsiku la chikhumi ndi chiwili (Twelfth day)lomwe linali tsiku lomwe anzeru a kum'mawa anakaona Yesu. Tsikulinso amakumbukira kubatizidwa kwa Yesu ndi Yohane m'mbatizi mu mtsinje wa Yorodani ndiponso zina zomwe zinachitika pa moyo wa Yesu. Akachenjede ena amati zomwe analemba Luka pa zimene abusa a nkhosa pa nthawi ya kubadwa kwa Yesu zimasonyeza kuti Yesu anabadwa kumapeto kwa nthawi yozizira kapena nthawi yotentha. [8]. Akachenjedewanso amaganizira kuti tsiku lokumbukira kubadwa kwa Yesu linasinthidwa ndi mpingo wa Chikatolika poyesa kusiyitsa chisangalalo cha anthu a chi Roma cha Saturnalia (lomwe lili tsiku lmwe ankhasangalala kubadwa kwa mulungu wawo wa dzuwa, Sol Ivictus

Mu chaka cha mazana awiri, makumi anayi ndi mphambu zisanu ndi ziwiri (248) pa Nthawi ya Daoklishani (yomwe Daocletian analanda ufumu wa chi Roma) Dionysius Exiguus anayesetsa kuwerenga molondola zaka zomwe zinapita chibadwireni Yesu ndipo anawelenga kuti panadutsa zaka mazana anasu ndi chiwiri ndi makumu asanu ndi atatu (753) chikhazikutsireni mzinda wa Rome. Iyeyo anakhazikitsa kuti tsiku la kubadwa ka Yesu linali pa 25 December 1ACN (kutanthauza kuti zaka za kumbuyo Yesu asanabadwe) ndipo anatchila chaka chitsatiracho 1 AD- ndipo chomwecho ankhazikitsa dongosolo lowerenga zaka kuchokera pa chaka chomwe Yesu anabwadwa: AD (amene amatanthauza Chaka cha Mulungu). DOngosololi linapangidwa mu chaka cha mazana asanu, makumi atatu ndi awiri (532), ndipo patapita zaka pafupi fipi mazana awiri anthu anavomereza kuti likhale dongosolo lomwe maiko onse azigwiritsa ntchito.

Ndi povuta kunena tsiku leni leni lomwe Yesu anabadwa chifukwa zolembalemba zina zokhudza nkhaniyi zinasowa kapena kuonongeka ndiponso zaka 1900 zinadutsa chilembedwereni mau a mu uthenga wa bwino, koma chifukwa cha kadamsana amene anachitiza zaka zana kuchokera pamene yesu anabadwa, olemba mbiri Josephus analemba kuti zimenezi zinachitika patatsala nthawi pang'ono kuti Herodi, amene amatchulidwa mu bukhu la Mateyu, amwalire, ndiponso amatchula kuti malinga ndi mbiri, Yesu anabadwa chaka cha 3BC chisanakwane.

Uthenga wa bwino wa Luka ndi Mateyu umanena kuti Yesu anabadwa pa nthawi yomwe Herodi anali mfumu. Luka amenenanso kuti Yesu anabadwa pa nthawi ya Gavanala Quirinius ndipo inali nthawi ya kalembera wa magawo onse a chi Roma ku Siriya ndi Yudeya. Josephus amati izi zinachitika 5AD/CE (zomwe Luka amanena mu Machitidwe 5:37), patapita nthawi chimwalilireni Herodi mu 4BC. Choncho, kutsutsana kumakhala pa nkhani yofufuza ngati zomwe zinalembedwa zingagwirizane ndi kulamulila kwa kale kwa Quirinius ku Siriya, ndi kalembera wina amene akanakhala kuti anachitikapo, ndi kuona kuti kulongosola kolakwika ndi kuti. [9]

Tsiku la kubadwa ka Yesu nso silimadziwika bwino bwino. Uthenga wa Bwino wa Yohane umalongosola kuti kupachikidwa kwake kunali nthawi ya Pasaka yomwe imachitika tsiku la khumi ndi chinayi la mwezi wa Nisan ku chi Yuda, pomwe mabukhu a uthenga wa bwino (kupatula Marko 14:2) amati nkhomaliro yotsilizaya Yesu ndi Pasaka zinachitika pa tsiku la khumi ndi chisani mwezi wa Nisan; koma akachenjede ena amati mabukhu enawo amagwirizana ndi zolembedwa mu bukhu la Yohane. [10] A Yudanso ankatsatila kalendala ya dzuwa ndi mwezi, yomwe imawelenga masiku malinga ndi kusintha kwa mwezi, imene imabvuta powelenga pongwiritsa ntchito [kalendala] ya dzuwa. Bukhu la a John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew lomwe limaunika masiku a utsogoleri wa Pilato ndi masiku a Pasaka limanena kuti Yesu anakhomeleredwa pa mtanda pa 7 April 30AD kapena pa 3 April, 33 AD.

Notes[edit | edit source]