Tuberculosis

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Tuberculosis
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
ICD/CIM-10A15A19 A15A19
ICD/CIM-9010018 010018
OMIM607948
DiseasesDB8515
MedlinePlus000077

Chifuwa chachikulu (TB) ndi matenda opatsirana omwe nthawi zambiri amayamba chifukwa cha bakiteriya wa Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[1] Matenda a chifuwa chachikulu amagwira mapapo, koma amathanso kukhudza ziwalo zina za thupi. Anthu ambiri ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa sasonyeza zizindikiro zilizonse, ndipo zikatero zimakhala kuti chifukwa chachikulucho sichinayambe kuwonekera. Pafupifupi 10% ya anthu omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa omwe sanayambe kusonyeza zizindikiro zilizonse amatha kuyamba kuonetsa zizindikiro ngati sanalandire thandizo lililonse la kuchipatala, ndipo hafu ya anthu oterewa amatha kumwalira ndi matendawa. Zizindikiro za matenda a TB zikuphatikizapo kukhosomola kwambiri mpaka kumalavula magazi, kutentha thupi, kutuluka thukuta usiku, ndiponso kuwonda. Matendawa ankadziwika kuti "'''oyamwa thupi'''" chifukwa choti anthu omwe akudwala amawonda kwambiri. Matendawa akagwira ziwalo zina munthuyo amatha kuyamba kusonyeza zizindikiro zosiyanasiyana.

Chifuwa chachikulu chimafalikira kudzera mumpweya anthu omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa akakhosomola, kulavula malovu, kulankhula kapena kuyetsemula.[1][2] Anthu omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa omwe sanayambe kuonetsa zizindikiro sangapatsire anthu ena. Anthu omwe ali ndi matenda ena monga HIV/Edzi komanso omwe amasuta fodya ndi omwe kawirikawiri amadwala matenda a chifuwa chachikulu.[1] Kuti madokotala azindikire ngati munthu ali ndi TB amafunika kumuunika m'mapapu pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya X-ray, komanso kuyesa madzi a m'thupi kuti aone ngati ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa. Koma kuti madokotala adziwe ngati munthu ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa ngakhale kuti sakusonyeza zizindikiro, zimadalira kuyeza khungu pogwiritsa ntchito njira yotchedwa tuberculin skin test (TST) kapena kuyeza magazi.[3]

Kupewa kwa chifuwa cha TB kumaphatikizapo kuunika omwe ali pachiopsezo chachikulu, kuzindikira matendawa asanayambe n'komwe ndi kulandira thandizo la kuchipatala mofulumira komanso kulandira katemera wa bacillus Calmette-Guérin.[4][5][6] Anthu omwe angatenge matendawa mosavuta ndi omwe akukhala nyumba imodzi ndi wodwala, anthu omwe akugwira nawo ntchito komanso anthu omwe angamacheze ndi wodwala chifuwa chachikulu.[6] Thandizo la chipatala la matendawa likuphatikizapo kugwiritsa ntchito maantibayotiki ambiri kwanthawi yaitali.[1] Nthawi zina tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa sitimva mankhwala a maantibayotiki (MDR-TB) komanso sitimva mankhwala aliwonse a chifuwa chachikulu (XDR-TB).

Zikuoneka kuti munthu m'modzi pa atatu alionse padziko lapansili ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa TB.[1] Chaka chilichonse pamapezeka pafupifupi munthu m'modzi watsopano pa anthu 100 alionse amene tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa talowa m'thupi mwake.[7] Mu 2014, panali anthu 9.6 miliyoni omwe anadwala matenda a TB ndiponso anthu oposa 1.5 anafa ndi matendawa. Anthu oposa 95 pa 100 alionse omwe anamwalira ndi matendawa anali a m'mayiko osauka. Koma chiwerengero cha anthu atsopano omwe akumatenga matendawa chaka chilichonse chatsika kuyambira m'chaka cha 2000.[1] Ndipo pafupifupi anthu 80 pa 100 alionse a m'maiko ambiri ku Asia ndi ku Africa anapezeka kuti ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matedawa atayezedwa ndi achipatala, pomwe oyambira pa 5 mpaka 10 pa 100 alionse a ku United States ndi amene anapezeka ndi tizilombo toyambitsa chifuwa chachikulu.[8] Ndipo zikuoneka kuti anthu akhala akudwala chifuwa chachikulu kuyambira kale kwambiri.[9]

References[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104". WHO. October 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  2. "Basic TB Facts". CDC. March 13, 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  3. Konstantinos A (2010). "Testing for tuberculosis". Australian Prescriber. 33 (1): 12–18.
  4. Hawn, TR; Day, TA; Scriba, TJ; Hatherill, M; Hanekom, WA; Evans, TG; Churchyard, GJ; Kublin, JG; Bekker, LG; Self, SG (December 2014). "Tuberculosis vaccines and prevention of infection". Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR. 78 (4): 650–71. PMID 25428938.
  5. Harris, Randall E. (2013). Epidemiology of chronic disease : global perspectives. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 682. ISBN 9780763780470.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Organization, World Health (2008). Implementing the WHO Stop TB Strategy : a handbook for national TB control programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 179. ISBN 9789241546676.
  7. "Tuberculosis". World Health Organization. 2002.
  8. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitchell RN (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. pp. 516–522. ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. Lawn, SD; Zumla, AI (2 July 2011). "Tuberculosis". Lancet. 378 (9785): 57–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62173-3. PMID 21420161.