Atombolombo

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Atombolombo wosamukira kudziko lina

Atombolombo ndi tizilombo ta dongosolo la Odonata, matenda a Anisoptera (ochokera ku Greek ἄνισος anisos, "osalinganika" ndi πτερόν pteron, "mapiko", chifukwa chakuti kuthamanga kuli kwakukulu kuposa chithunzi). Zilombo za dragonflies akuluakulu amadziwika ndi maso akuluakulu, mawiri awiri a mapiko amphamvu, mapiko oonekera, nthawi zina ali ndi mabala achikuda, ndi thupi lokhalitsa. Ziwombankhanga zikhoza kulakwitsa chifukwa cha gulu lomwe likugwirizana, damselflies (Zygoptera), zomwe ziri zofanana ndi kapangidwe, ngakhale zimakhala zowala mukumanga; Komabe, mapiko a dragonflies amachitikizidwa mokwanira ndi kutali ndi thupi, pamene damselflies amachititsa mapikowo kuti apumule, pamtunda kapena pamwamba pa mimba. Ziwombankhanga zimakhala zovuta kwambiri, pamene damselflies ali ndi mphamvu yofooka, yothamanga. Zilombo zam'mlengalenga zambiri zimakhala ndi zithunzi zokongola kwambiri kapena zitsulo zopangidwa ndi maonekedwe ake, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ziwoneke. Maso aakulu a dragonfly ali ndi pafupifupi 24,000 ommatidia iliyonse.

Zamoyo[edit | edit source]

Zachilengedwe[edit | edit source]

Zilombo zam'mlengalenga ndi damselflies zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'madzi a m'nyanja ya nymphal ndi akuluakulu. Nymphs amadyetsa mitundu yambiri ya madzi osadziwika ndi yochuluka yomwe imatha kudya nyama zam'madzi ndi nsomba zazing'ono. Akuluakulu amatha kutenga nyama zakutchire mumlengalenga, pogwiritsa ntchito masomphenya awo komanso ndege yowonongeka. Mapulogalamu ofanana ndi anyamatawa ndi ovuta kwambiri ndipo ali pakati pa magulu angapo omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda omwe amatha kusinthana ndi umuna, kuchepetsa umuna, ndi mpikisano wa umuna.

Amuna achikulire amateteza mwakhama madera pafupi ndi madzi; Izi zimapereka malo abwino oti mphutsi zikhazikitsidwe, komanso kuti akazi aziyika mazira awo. Nkhuku zodyera zimagwidwa kuti ziwombe nyama zowonongeka ngati zinyama zouluka.

Khalidwe[edit | edit source]

Zambiri za dragonflies, makamaka amuna, ndizogawo. Ena amateteza gawo lawo ndi ena a mitundu yawo, ena amatsutsana ndi mitundu ina ya dragonfly ndi ochepa omwe amatsutsana ndi tizilombo m'magulu osagwirizana. Mtengo wina umapatsa dragonfly malingaliro abwino pa malo odyetseratu tizilombo, ndipo blue dasher (Pachydiplax longipennis) amagwiritsa ntchito zida zina kuti akhalebe ndi ufulu wokwera kumeneko.

Kutetezera gawo lozala ndilofala pakati pa agulugufe aamuna, makamaka pakati pa mitundu yomwe imasonkhana pamadziwe ambirimbiri. Mundawu uli ndi zinthu zabwino monga dzuwa lotambasula madzi osadziwika, mitundu yapadera ya zomera, kapena gawo lina lofunika kuti dzira ligone. Gawolo lingakhale laling'ono kapena lalikulu, malingana ndi khalidwe lake, nthawi ya tsiku, ndi chiwerengero cha mpikisano, ndipo ikhoza kuchitidwa kwa mphindi zingapo kapena maola angapo. Zilombo za dragonflies zimasonyeza chizindikiro cha umwini ndi mitundu yowala pamaso, mimba, miyendo, kapena mapiko. Whitetail (Plathemis lydia) wamba amagwedeza kwa munthu wamba amene ali ndi mimba yoyera ngati mbendera. Zinyama zina zimagwiritsa ntchito zida zam'mlengalenga kapena kuthamanga kwambiri. Mkazi ayenera kukwatirana ndi mwini mundayo asanayambe mazira. Palinso mkangano pakati pa amuna ndi akazi. Amuna nthawi zina amazunzidwa ndi amuna mpaka momwe amakhudzidwira ntchito zawo zachilengedwe kuphatikizapo kudya ndi zina zomwe zimawathandiza kuti azikhala ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Mu mitundu ina yazimayi zakhala ndi mayankho a makhalidwe monga kuwonetsa imfa kuti asamangoganizira za amuna.

Kubalana[edit | edit source]

Zosakanikirana, zizindikiro za Orthetrum luzonicum, kupanga "mtima"

Kulumikizana mu zifwambazi ndi zovuta, ndondomeko yowonongeka bwino. Choyamba, mwamuna ayenera kukopera mkazi ku gawo lake, kupitiliza kuyendetsa amuna apikisano. Pamene ali wokonzeka kukwatirana, amachotsa paketi ya umuna kuchokera kumutu wake woyamba wa chiberekero pa gawo 9, pafupi ndi mapeto a mimba yake, mpaka kumapeto kwa mimba yake, mpaka kumapeto kwa mimba 2-3, pafupi ndi pamimba pake. Amuna amamenya mkazi ndi mutu ndi claspers kumapeto kwa mimba yake; Mapangidwe a claspers amasiyana pakati pa mitundu, ndipo amathandizira kupewa kuthamanga kwa interspecific. Ntchentche ziwirizi zimakhala pamtunda ndi mbuzi kutsogolo, nthawi zambiri zimayambira pamtengo kapena tsinde. Mkaziyo amathyola mimba yake pansi ndikupita patsogolo pa thupi lake kukatenga umuna kuchokera kumaliseche yachiwiri a mwamuna, pamene mwamuna amagwiritsa ntchito "mchira" wake kuti amugwire mkazi kumutu: izi zimakhala "mtima" kapena "gudumu"; Awiriwo angathenso kutchulidwa kuti "ali msilikali".

Mazira-oyala (ovipositing) sizimangothamanga zokhazokha pazitsamba zoyandama kapena m'madzi kuti ziike mazira pa gawo loyenerera, komanso mzimayi akukwera pamwamba pake kapena kumangomugwedeza ndi kuwuluka pamtunda. Amuna amayesetsa kupewa otsutsana ndi kuchotsa umuna wake ndikudziika okha, zomwe zimawoneka ndi kuchepetsa ubereketsedwe ndi kutsogozedwa ndi chisankho cha kugonana. Ngati apambana, mwamuna wotsutsana amagwiritsa ntchito mbolo yake kupondereza kapena kutulutsa umuna womwe umayikidwa kale; Ntchitoyi imatenga nthawi yochuluka yomwe zimapangika mtima. Kuthamanga kumtunda kuli ndi phindu lomwe limafunikira kuti mayi asathamangitsidwe ndipo zambiri zingatheke pa dzira-atagona, ndipo pamene mkazi amathira pansi kuti apereke mazira, amphongo amuthandize kuti amuchotse pamadzi.

Mazira akugona amatenga mitundu iwiri yosiyana malingana ndi mitundu. Mkazi wina m'mabanja ena ali ndi makina okhwima omwe amatha kutsegula tsinde kapena tsamba la zomera pamtunda kapena pafupi ndi madzi, kotero amatha kukankhira mazira mkati mwake. M'mabanja ena monga zojambula (Gomphidae), oyendayenda (Macromiidae), emeralds (Corduliidae), ndi azimayi (Libellulidae), mkazi amaika mazira mwakumangirira pamwamba pa madzi mobwerezabwereza ndi mimba yake, pogwedeza mazira m'mimba mwake pamene akuuluka, kapena amaika mazira pazomera. Mu mitundu yochepa, mazira amaikidwa pamtunda pamwamba pa madzi, ndipo chitukuko chachedwa kufikira izi zitafota ndikukhala kumizidwa.

Zolemba[edit | edit source]