Billie Holiday

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Billie Holiday ku gulu la Downbeat, gulu la jazz ku New York City.

Eleanora Fagan (April 7, 1915 - Julai 17, 1959), wodziwika bwino monga Billie Holiday, anali mimba ya ku jazz ya ku America yomwe ili ndi zaka pafupifupi makumi atatu. Atchulidwa kuti "Tsiku la Dona" ndi abwenzi ake ndi amzanga omwe amacheza ndi Lester Young, Holiday anali ndi mphamvu pamasewero a jazz ndi kuimba pop. Mawu ake, omwe anauziridwa kwambiri ndi akatswiri ojambula nyimbo za jazz, anapanga njira yatsopano yogwiritsira ntchito zida ndi nthawi. Ankadziwika chifukwa cha kutumiza mawu ndi maluso osakonzekera, omwe amapanga maphunziro ake ochepa.

Pambuyo panthawi yovuta, Nthaŵi ya Tchuthi idayamba kuimba m'mabwalo a usiku ku Harlem, komwe anamva ndi wolemba John Hammond, amene adayamika. Analemba mgwirizano wolembera ndi Brunswick Records mu 1935. Kugwirizana ndi Teddy Wilson kunapangitsa kuti "Kodi Kuwala Kwakukulu Kwambiri Kungathe Bwanji", komwe kunayambira muyezo wa jazz. Pakati pa zaka za m'ma 1930 ndi 1940, Tchutchutchu zinkakhala bwino pamakalata monga Columbia Records ndi Decca Records. Pofika kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1940, iye adali ndi mavuto alamulo ndi kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo. Pambuyo pa chilango chochepa cha kundende, iye anachita nawo msonkhano wotulutsidwa ku Carnegie Hall, koma mbiri yake inakula chifukwa cha mavuto ake osokoneza bongo ndi mowa.

Ngakhale kuti anali katswiri wochita masewera olimbitsa thupi m'zaka za m'ma 1950 ndi ziwonetsero ziwiri zomwe zinagulitsidwa ku Carnegie Hall, kudwala kwachiwongoladzanja, kuphatikizapo chiyanjano chaukwati komanso mankhwala osokoneza bongo, zinachititsa kuti mawu ake afota. Zolemba zake zomaliza zinali zosakanikirana ndi mawu ake owonongeka koma zinali zochepa zogulitsa zamalonda. Nyimbo yake yotsiriza, Lady mu Satin, inatulutsidwa mu 1958. Tchuthi linafa ndi matenda a chibwibwi pa July 17, 1959. Album yotumizidwa, Last Record, inatulutsidwa pambuyo pa imfa yake.

Zambiri za Pulogalamuyi zakhala zikubwezeretsedwa kuyambira imfa yake. Iye akuwoneka kuti ndi woimba wamakono ndi chikoka chopitirira pa nyimbo za America. Iye ndi amene amalandila madalitso anayi a Grammy Awards, onsewa omwe amapatsidwa mphoto kwa Best Historical Album. Pulogalamuyi inalembedwa mu Grammy Hall of Fame mu 1973. Lady Sings the Blues, filimu yokhudza moyo wake, Diana Ross, anatulutsidwa m'chaka cha 1972. Iye ndi yemwe ali ndi khalidwe lapamwamba pa sewero ndipo kenako tsiku lakale la Lady's pa Emerson's Bar ndi Grill; udindowu unayambika ndi Reenie Upchurch mu 1986 ndipo adawonetsedwa ndi Audra McDonald pa Broadway komanso mu filimuyi.

Discography[edit | sintha gwero]

Billie Holiday yotchulidwapo malemba anayi: Columbia Records, yomwe inamulembera ma DVD ena a Brunswick Records, Records Vocalion, ndi OKeh Records, kuyambira 1933 mpaka 1942; Ma CD Commodore mu 1939 ndi 1944; Decca Records kuyambira 1944 mpaka 1950; mwachidule kwa Aladdin Records mu 1951; Verve Records ndi cholembedwa chake choyamba Clef Records; kuyambira 1952 mpaka 1957, kenanso kwa Columbia Records kuyambira 1957 mpaka 1958 ndipo potsirizira pake kwa MGM Records mu 1959. Zojambula zambiri za Holidays zinawonekera pa ma 78-rpm zolemba pasanayambe nthawi yojambula nyimbo, ndipo ndi Clef, Verve, ndi Columbia yekha Anatulutsa Albums mu nthawi yake ya moyo yomwe sizinali zolembedwera zakuthupi zomwe zinatulutsidwa kale. Makonzedwe ambiri atulutsidwa kuyambira imfa yake; komanso ma bokosi aakulu ndi zojambula.[1][2]

Hit records[edit | sintha gwero]

Mu 1986, kampani ya Joel Whitburn ya Record Research inalemba zambiri zokhudza kutchuka kwa zojambula zomwe zinatulutsidwa kuchokera ku nthawi yoyamba ya rock ndi roll ndi kupanga mapulogalamu apamwamba kuyambira pachiyambi cha malonda ojambula nyimbo. Zotsatira za kampanizi zinafalitsidwa m'buku la Pop Memories 1890-1954. Zolemba zingapo za Tchuthi zalembedwa pa mapepala a pop pop Whitburn adalengedwa.

Pulogalamuyi inayamba kujambula ntchito yake pamasewero akuluakulu ndi buku lake loyamba, "Riffin 'the Scotch", limene makope 5,000 anagulitsidwa. Anatulutsidwa pansi pa dzina lakuti Benny Goodman ndi Orchestra yake.

Zambiri za Pulogalamuyi zakupambana koyamba zinatulutsidwa pansi pa dzina lakuti "Teddy Wilson ndi Orchestra Yake." Pamene anali kukhala mu gulu la Wilson, Tchuthi imayimba mipiringidzo ingapo ndipo oimba ena amakhala ndi solo. Wilson, mmodzi mwa oimba pianist oposa jazz nthawi swing, limodzi ndi Odyera kuposa woimba wina aliyense. Iye ndi Holiday anatulutsa zolemba 95 palimodzi.

Mu Julayi 1936, Tchuthi anayamba kutulutsa mbali pansi pa dzina lake. Nyimbozi zinatulutsidwa pansi pa dzina lakuti Billie Holiday & Her Orchestra. Chochititsa chidwi kwambiri, chikhalidwe cha jazz chotchedwa "Chilimwe" chinagulitsidwa bwino ndipo chinatchulidwa pazithunzi zapakati pa nthawiyi pa nambala 12, nthawi yoyamba ndondomeko ya jazz inalembedwa. Mpukutu wa R & B wa "Billy Stewart" wa R & B wokha ndi womwe unapangidwira pa tchati chokwanira kuposa Holidays, yomwe ikulemba pa nambala 10 zaka makumi atatu pambuyo pake mu 1966.

Pulogalamuyi inali ndi nyimbo 16 zogulitsidwa bwino mu 1937, zomwe zimagulitsa chaka chonse. M'chaka chino, Tchuthi adapeza nambala imodzi yokha yomwe inamveka ngati wolemba mawu pa mapepala omwe alipo alipo 1930, "Osasamala". Mgwirizano wakuti "Ndili ndi Chikondi Changa Kuti Ndikhale Wosangalatsa", adalembedwanso ndi Ray Noble, Glen Gray ndi Fred Astaire omwe kumasuliridwa kwawo kunali kwabwino kwa milungu iwiri. Pulogalamuyi ili ndi ndondomeko 6 pa mapeto a chaka chomwe chilipo cha 1937.

Mu 1939, Tchuthi linalemba mbiri yake yogulitsa kwambiri, "Zipatso Zachilendo" za Commodore, zojambula pa nambala 16 pa mapepala opezeka pop popanga ma 1930.

Mu 1940, Billboard anayamba kusindikiza zikalata zake zamakono zamakono, zomwe zinaphatikizapo ndondomeko ya Best Sales Sell Retail Records, yomwe ili patsogolo pa Hot 100. Palibe nyimbo za Phirili zomwe zinayikidwa pamabuku amakono a pope, mwina chifukwa Billboard inangosindikiza zoyambira khumi za masati muzinthu zina. Kugonjera kwazing'ono ndi kutulutsa zosasunthika kunalibe njira yodziwonekera.

"Mulungu adalitse mwanayo", yemwe adagulitsa magulu oposa milioni, adayika nambala 3 pa nyimbo za Billboard za kumapeto kwa chaka cha 1941.

Pa Oktoba 24, 1942, Billboard anayamba kupereka mipukutu yake ya R & B. Nyimbo ziwiri za Phirili zinayikidwa pa tchati, "Trav'lin 'Kuwala" ndi Paul Whiteman, yomwe ili pamunsi pa tchati, ndi "Munthu Wokonda", womwe unakafika ku nambala 5. "Trav Light" inafikanso 18 pa Billboard, mapeto omaliza.

Zolemba[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. [1] Template:Webarchive
  2. [[[:Template:Allmusic]] Billie Holiday]. AllMusic. Retrieved on November 13, 2010.