Chifuwa chokoka mtima

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Chifuwa chokoka mtima, chomwe chimadziwikanso kuti chifuwa cha masiku 100, ndi matenda omwe anthu amapatsirana mosavuta ndipo chimayambitsidwa ndi mabakiteriya.[1][2] Matendawa akamayamba kumene, zizindikiro zake zimakhala zofanana ndi za chifuwa wamba komanso chimfine ndipo wodwala amatuluka mamina, amatentha thupi ndiponso amakhosomola mwa apo ndi apo. Pakapita nthawi, wodwalayo amayamba kukhosomola kwambiri. Ndiyeno wodwalayo amayamba kukhosomola modetsa nkhawa ndiponso amabanika.[2] Wodwalayo angakhosomole kwa masiku opitirira 100 kapena milungu 10.[3] Wodwalayo angakhosomole kwambiri mpaka kufika posanza, kuvulala m'nthiti, kapena kufika potopa kwambiri mpaka kumalephera kukhosomala bwinobwino.[2][4] Ana omwe sanakwanitse chaka chimodzi kawirikawiri sakhosomola kwenikweni koma m'malo mwake amangobanika kwa kanthawi ndithu.[2] Nthawi zambiri pamadutsa masiku oyambira pa 7 mpaka 10 kuchokera pa nthawi imene tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa talowa m'thupi la munthu kuti munthuyo ayambe kusonyeza zizindikiro.[5] Nthawi zina anthu amene anapatsidwa katemera wa matendawa amatha kudwala koma matendawa sakhala a mphamvu kwambiri.[2]

Matenda a chifuwa chokoka mtima amayambitsidwa ndi mabakiteriya otchedwa Bordetella pertussis. Anthu amapatsirana matendawa kudzera mu mpweya ndipo amafalikira mosavuta munthu yemwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa wakhosomula kapena kuyetsemula.[6] Wodwala akhoza kupatsira ena matendawa kungoyambira pamene wayamba kusonyeza zizindikiro mpaka kufika pa milungu itatu atayamba kukhosomola modetsa nkhawa. Odwala amene alandira mankhwala olimbana ndi mabakiteriya sangapatsire ena matendawa ngati papita masiku 4 kuchokera pamene anayamba kumwa mankhwalawa.[7] Madokotala amafunika kuyeza makhololo kapena mamina kuti adziwe ngati munthu ali ndi matendawa. Ndiyenso madokotala angayeze zinthu zimenezi pogwiritsa ntchito njira zosiyanasiyana monga yotchedwa culture kapena yotchedwa polymerase chain reaction.[8]

Matendawa angapewedwe ndi katemera monga katemera wa chifuwa chokoka mtima.[9] Azaumoyo amalimbikitsa makolo kuti ana onse a milungu 6 mpaka 8 ayenera kupatsidwa katemera woyambirira yemwe amakhala wa magawo anawo.[10] Koma mphamvu za katemerayu zimachepa pakapita zaka zingapo ndipo azaumoyo amalimbikitsa kuti ana akulirapo komanso akuluakulu azipatsidwanso katemerayu.[11] Anthu amene akhala pafupi ndi munthu yemwe akudwala matendawa angamwe mankhwala olimbana ndi mabakiteriya pofuna kudziteteza kuti asadwale.[12] Koma kwa anthu amene ayamba kale kudwala matendawa, kumwa mankhwala olimbana ndi mabakiteriya patapita milungu itatu kuyambira pamene anayamba kusonyeza zizindikiro za matendawa sikuthandiza kwenikweni. Ana osakwanitsa chaka chimodzi komanso amayi apakati angathe kumwa mankhwala olimbana ndi mabakiteriya ngati papita milungu 6 kuyambira pamene zizindikiro za matendawa zinayamba kuonekera. Mankhwala olimbana ndi mabakiteriya omwe angagwiritsidwe ntchito ndi monga erythromycin, azithromycin, kapenatrimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.[7] Koma kafukufuku akusonyeza kuti mankhwala sathandiza kwenikweni pa vuto la kukhosomola kwambiri.[13] Ana ambiri osakwanitsa chaka chimodzi amagonekedwa m'chipatala chifukwa cha matendawa.[2]

Zikuoneka kuti matenda a chifuwa chokoka mtima amakhudza anthu 16 miliyoni chaka chilichonse padziko lonse.[13] Ambiri mwa anthu amene amakhudzidwa ndi matendawa ndi a m'mayiko amene akukwera kumene ndipo anthu a misinkhu yonse akukhudzidwa.[9][13] Mu 2013 matendawa anapha anthu 61,000 ndipo chiwerengerochi n'chocheperapo tikayerekezera ndi anthu 138,000 amene anamwalira ndi matendawa mu 1990.[14] Pafupifupi ana awiri pa 100 aliwonse amene amatenga matendawa amamwalira.[4] Mbiri imasonyeza kuti matendawa anadziwika koyamba m'zaka za ma 1500. Mabakiteriya amene amayambitsa matendawa anadziwika koyamba mu 1906. Katemera wa matenda a chifuwa chokoka mtima anayamba kupezeka m'zaka za m'ma 1940.[5]

  1. Carbonetti NH (June 2007). "Immunomodulation in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis infection and disease". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 7 (3): 272–8. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2006.12.004. PMID 17418639.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Signs & Symptoms". May 22, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
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  5. 5.0 5.1 Atkinson, William (May 2012). Pertussis Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 215–230. ISBN 9780983263135.
  6. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Causes & Transmission". cdc.gov. September 4, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Treatment". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  8. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Specimen Collection". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
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  11. "Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 85 (40): 385–400. Oct 1, 2010. PMID 20939150.
  12. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Prevention". cdc.gov. October 10, 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Wang, K; Bettiol, S; Thompson, MJ; Roberts, NW; Perera, R; Heneghan, CJ; Harnden, A (22 September 2014). "Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD003257. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003257.pub5. PMID 25243777.
  14. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442.