Chiwewe

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Chiwewe
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
Galu wachiwewe amene chiwewe chake sichinafike poipa kwambiri
Galu wachiwewe amene chiwewe chake sichinafike poipa kwambiri
ICD/CIM-10 A82 A82
DiseasesDB 11148
MedlinePlus 001334

Chiwewe ndi ndi mavairasi omwe amachititsa kutupa kwa bongo wa munthu kapena nyama yomwe yagwidwa ndi matendawa.[1] Zizindikiro zoyambirira za matendawa ndi kutentha ndiponso kuphwanya kwa thupi komanso kuyabwa kwa pamalo pamene palowa tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa.[1] Kenako pamakhalanso zizindikiro zina monga zotsatirazi: kuchita zinthu mwachiwawa, kusangalala kopitirira malire, kuopa kwambiri madzi, kulephera kusuntha kapena kuyendetsa ziwalo zina zathupi, kusokonezeka, ngakhalenso kukomoka kumene.[1] Zizindikiro za matendawa zikangoyamba kuonekera, nthawi zambiri munthuyo kapena nyamayo imafa.[1] Kuchokera pa nthawi imene tizilombo toyambitsa chiwewe talowa m'thupi la munthu kapena nyama, nthawi zambiri pamadutsa mwezi umodzi kapena itatu kuti zizindikiro ziyambe kuonekera. Komabe, nthawi zina pangapite mlungu umodzi wokha kuti zizindikirozi ziyambe kuonekera, kapenanso pangapite nthawi yokwana chaka chimodzi.[1] Zimenezi zimadalira kutalika kwa mtunda umene tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tingayende kuchokera pamene talowera kuti tikafike ku bongo.[2]

Zimene zimayambitsa matendawa komanso zizindikiro zake[edit | edit source]

Matenda a chiwewe amafalikira kwa anthu kuchokera ku zinyama. Matendawa angafalikire ngati nyama yomwe ili ndi matedwa yakanda kapena kuluma nyama ina ngakhalenso munthu.[1] Tozilombo toyambitsa matendawa tingalowe m'thupi la munthu wina ngati munthuyo wakhudza malovu kapena timadzi tina ta m'thupi la munthu yemwe ali ndi matendawa.[1] Anthu ambiri amadwala matenda a chiwewe chifukwa cholumidwa ndi agalu achiwewe.[1] M'mayiko amene chiwewe n'chofala, anthu oposa 99% omwe amadwala matendwa, amadwala chifukwa cholumidwa ndi agalu achiwewe.[3] Koma m'mayiko a ku North ndi South America, anthu amadwala kwambiri chiwewe chifukwa cholumidwa ndi mileme ndipo anthu osakwana 5% amadwala matendawa chifukwa cholumidwa ndi agalu achiwewe.[1][3] Koma sikawirikawiri kuti nyama ngati makoswe, mbewa ndi mbira zikhale ndi chiwewe.[3] Mavairasi oyambitsa chiwewe amayenda kufika ku bongo podutsa mu minyewa ya kunja kwa bongo. Madokotala angadziwe zoti munthu ali ndi matendawa pokhapokha ngati munthuyo wayamba kusonyeza zizindikiro.[1]

Kapewedwe kake ndiponso chithandizo[edit | edit source]

Katemera wachiwewe wa agalu wachepetsa kwambiri matendawa m'madera ambiri padziko lonse lapansi.[1] Komanso zimakhala bwino kuti anthu amene ali m'madera amene chiwewe n'chofala kwambiri azilandiriratu katemera wa matendawa. Anthu omwe ali pachiopsezo chachikulu chotenga matendawa ndi amene amagwira ntchito m'madera amene mileme ndi yochuluka kapena omwe amakhala nthawi yaitali m'madera omwe chiwewecho n'chofala kwambiri.[1] Kwa anthu amene ali m'madera oterewa katemera wachiwewe kapena kumweratu makhwala othandiza kuti munthu asadwale chiwewe n'zothandiza kwambiri kuti munthu apewe matendawa, ngakhale kuti sakusonyeza zizindikiro zoti angakhale ndi matendawa.[1] Munthu angathenso kupewa chiwewe ngati watsuka pachilonda chomwe walumidwa ndi galu kapena nyama ina yachiwewe kwa maminitsi 15, pogwiritsa ntchito sopo ndi madzi, povidone ayodini, kapena sopo wina wopha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.[1] Ndi anthu ochepa kwambiri amene anachira pambuyo poti ayamba kusonyeza zizindikiro zoti ali ndi matenda achiwewe. Anthuwo amachira akathandizidwa kwa nthawi yaitali ndi njira zosiyasiyana zakuchipatala, monga njira yotchedwa Milwaukee protocol.[4]

Katemera[edit | edit source]

Katemera wachiwewe ndi katemera amene amagwiritsidwa ntchito pofuna kupewa chiwewe.[5] Pali mitundu ingapo yakatemerayi yemwe ndi yosaopsa komanso wothandiza kwambiri. Munthu angalandire katemera ameneyu kwa nthawi inayake, kapena asanapite kudera limene kuli mileme kapena agalu ambiri a chiwewe. Katemerayu amaperekedwa nthawi zitatu, ndipo amathandiza kwa nthawi yaitali. Nthawi zambiri anthu amapatsidwa katemerayu powabaya jakiseni. Ngati munthu ali kale m'dera lomwe chiwewe n'chofala, kawirikawiri angapatsidwe katemera wachiwewe wamphamvu kwambiri. Zimakhala bwino kuti anthu amene akudziwa kuti apita kumadera amene chiwewe n'chofala alandiriretu katemera asanapite kuderalo. Katemerayu ndi wothandiza kwa anthu ndi zinyama zomwe. Kupereka katemera kwa agalu n'kothandiza zedi popewa chiwewe.[5]

Kodi Katemerayu Amayambitsa Mavuto Alionse?[edit | edit source]

Anthu mamiliyoni ambirimbiri padziko lonse alandirapo katemera wachiwewe ndipo zikuoneka kuti chaka chilichonse katemerayu amathandiza kuti anthu 250,000 asafe ndi chiwewe.[5] Anthu a misinkhu yonse akhoza kulandira katemerayu popanda vuto lililonse. Koma anthu pafupifupi 35 mpaka 45 pa 100 aliwonse amatha kutupa pang'ono komanso kwa nthawi yochedwa pamalo pamene abayidwa ndi jakiseni polandira katemerayi. Ndipo anthu 5 mpaka 15 pa 100 aliwonse amamva kuphwanya kwa thupi, kupweteka kwa mutu, kapenanso amachita nseru. Ndipotu munthu angathe kupitiriza kulandira katemerayu ngakhale atalumidwa ndi galu kapena nyama ina yachiwewe. Mitundu yambiri ya katemera sikhala ndi mankhwala otchedwa thimerosal. Katemera wopangidwa kuchokera kuminyewa amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'mayiko ena angapo, makamaka ku Asia ndi ku Latin America, koma katemera wotereyu siwamphamvu kwenikweni, ndipo amayambitsa mavuto ena m'thupi. Choncho Bungwe Loona za Umoyo Padziko Lonse sililimbikitsa anthu kuti azigwiritsa ntchito katemera ameneyu.[5]

M'chaka cha 2014, mtengo wachipiku wa magawo onse a katemerayu unkayambira pa madola 44 mpaka 78 a ku America.[6] Koma ku America, mtengo wa magawo onse a katemerayu ndi woposa madola 750.[7]

Zokhudza Kufalikira kwa Matendawa[edit | edit source]

Chaka chilichonse, anthu pafupifupi 26,000 mpaka 55,000 amafa ndi matenda a chiwewe.[1][8] Mwa anthu amenewa, anthu oposa 95 pa 100 alionse ndi a ku Asia ndi ku Africa.[1] Matenda achiwewe akupezeka m'mayiko oposa 150 m'makontinenti onse, kungopatulapo ku Antarctica.[1] Anthu oposa 3 biliyoni amakhala m'madera osiyanasiyana padziko lapansili kumene kuli chiwewe.[1] M'mayiko ambiri a ku Ulaya ndiponso ku Australia, chiwewe chimapezeka ndi mileme basi.[9] Ndipo chiwewe sichipezeka n'komwe m'zilumba zambiri zing'onozing'ono.[10]

Malifalensi[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 "Rabies Fact Sheet N°99". World Health Organization. July 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  2. Cotran RS; Kumar V; Fausto N (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Elsevier/Saunders. p. 1375. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Tintinalli, Judith E. (2010). Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (Emergency Medicine (Tintinalli)). McGraw-Hill. pp. Chapter 152. ISBN 0-07-148480-9. 
  4. Hemachudha T, Ugolini G, Wacharapluesadee S, Sungkarat W, Shuangshoti S, Laothamatas J (May 2013). "Human rabies: neuropathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.". Lancet neurology 12 (5): 498–513. PMID 23602163. doi:10.1016/s1474-4422(13)70038-3. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper". Weekly epidemiological record 32 (85): 309–320. Aug 6, 2010. 
  6. "Vaccine, Rabies". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  7. Shlim, David (June 30, 2015). "Perspectives: Intradermal Rabies Preexposure Immunization". Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  8. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, Abraham J, Adair T, Aggarwal R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. 
  9. "Presence / absence of rabies in 2007". World Health Organization. 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  10. "Rabies-Free Countries and Political Units". CDC. Retrieved 1 March 2014.