Gulugufe

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Agulugufe kawirikawiri ndi tizilombo tomwe timawuluka pa dongosolo la Lepidoptera. Iwo amasonkhana pamodzi mu gawo la Rhopalocera. Tizilomboti timagwirizana kwambiri ndi njenjete, zomwe zinasinthika.

Moyo wa agulugufe umagwirizana kwambiri ndi maluwa, zomwe mphutsi zawo (mbozi) zimadyetsa, ndipo akuluakulu amadyetsa ndi kuika mazira awo. Iwo ali ndi mbiriyakale yokhazikika ya co-kusinthika ndi zomera. Zambiri mwazomwe zimapangidwira zomera zimagwirizana ndi zofufumitsa zawo, ndipo mosiyana ndi izi.[1] Zina mwazidziwikidwe za agulugufe ndi mitundu yawo yambiri ndi mitundu, ndi mapiko awo. Izi zikufotokozedwa pansipa.

Mitambo ya Angiosperms (maluwa) inasinthika ku Lower Cretaceous, koma siinali yowonekera mpaka ku Upper Cretaceous. Ziwombankhanga zinali gulu lalikulu kwambiri la tizilombo kuti liwoneke padziko lapansi.[2] Iwo anasintha kuchokera ku njenjete mu Cretaceous yatsopano kapena Cainozoic yakale kwambiri. Zakale zakale zagulugufe zodziwika bwino zagulugufe zinayamba kufika pakati pa nyengo ya Eocene, pakati pa zaka 40 mpaka 50 miliyoni zapitazo.[3]


Monga njenjete, agulugufe ali ndi mapiko anayi omwe ali ndi mamba ang'onoang'ono. Pamene gulugufe siliuluka, mapiko ake nthawi zambiri amawaponyera kumbuyo kwake. Mapikowa amawonekedwe ndipo nthawi zambiri amakhala achikasu. Pali mitundu yambiri ya agulugufe. Amuna ndi akazi a mtundu uliwonse amakhala osiyana kwambiri ndi wina ndi mnzake. Kuwoneka kwa tizilomboti timakonda kujambula. Anthu ena amasunganso magulufegufe omwe adagwira.

Mofanana ndi tizilombo tonse timene timakhala ndi mphamvu zokwanira, moyo wa gulugufe umadutsamo magawo anayi. Zimayamba ngati dzira, lomwe limalowa mu mphutsi (mbozi). Patapita nthawi, mphutsiyo imakhala chrysalis. Pamene ili mu siteji ya chrysalis, imakhala butterfly. Agulugufe kameneka amatulutsa kunja ndikuika mazira ambiri.

Zosokoneza ndi chitetezo[edit | sintha gwero]

Zosokoneza[edit | sintha gwero]

Zilombo zazikuluzikulu za agulugufe ndi mbalame, monga momwe zidyanja zazikuluzikulu za njenjete zimatha. Komanso nyani ndi zamoyo zokhala ndi mitengo ndi zinyama, ndi tizilombo tina ndi akangaude. Ndithudi zinyama zonse ndi abulu ali ndi masomphenya abwino, kotero kuti mtundu wa butterfly umagwira ntchito mofanana ndi iwo momwe izo zimachitira pa mbalame.

Chitetezo[edit | sintha gwero]

Mitundu yodabwitsa ndi mapangidwe pamapiko ndi thupi zimatha kumveka bwino malinga ndi ntchito yawo. Zina mwa ntchito zoonekera kwambiri za mtundu ndi:

  1. Kutseketsa: kuteteza tizilombo kukhala tcheru kuwona
  2. Kuwonetsera kwa zinyama zina
    1. Kuchenjeza mitundu: kusindikiza kwa zinyama zina kuti zisagwidwe
    2. Mimicry: kugwiritsa ntchito mtundu wina wa mitundu yochenjeza
    3. Kusankha kugonana: kupeza wokwatirana
    4. Mitundu ina ya chizindikiro
  3. Kusokonezeka
    1. Yoyamba kutetezera: Kuwala kosayembekezereka kwa mtundu kapena mapepala a maso

Mayendedwe amoyo[edit | sintha gwero]

Ziwombankhanga zimadutsa mwakuya kwathunthu. Izi zikutanthauza kuti pali mbali zinayi m'moyo wa agulugufe. Mbali yoyamba ndi dzira. Mbali yachiwiri ndi mbozi (nthawi zina imatchedwa larva). Gawo lachitatu ndi chrysalis (nthawi zina amatchedwa pupa). Gawo lachinayi ndilo wamkulu (nthawi zina amatchedwa imago).

Mazira[edit | sintha gwero]

Gulugufe wamkazi amaika mazira ake pafupi kapena pafupi ndi chomera cha mbozi (chakudya chomera ndi chomera chimene mbozi imadyetsa). Mkaziyo adzasankha malo oti aziyikira mazira pogwiritsa ntchito fungo, kulawa, kugwira, ndi kuona. Mitundu yambiri idzayika dzira limodzi pa chomera. Ena adzayika magulu a mazira asanu mpaka 100 pa chomera. Mitundu yambiri imayika mazira awo pa masamba a chomera. Ena adzawaika pa maluwa, zimayambira, makungwa, kapena zipatso za zomera.

Mazira amabwera maonekedwe ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Iwo akhoza kukhala ozungulira kapena ovundala, ndi omveka. Mu mitundu ina, chipolopolo cha dzira chimagwedezeka. Mitundu yowoneka bwino mu mazira a butterfly ndi achikasu ndi ofiira. Mazirawo adzasanduka mdima asanayambe kugwira ntchito. Ndiponso, agulugufe ena amatenga tsiku kuti atuluke mazira, pamene ena angatenge miyezi.

Komatsu[edit | sintha gwero]

Mbozi za mphutsi zimatha kukula, mtundu, ndi mawonekedwe. Iwo akhoza kukhala ndi misinkhu, mabala, kapena zofutukuka za thupi zofewa. Mbozi zonse zili ndi zigawo 13 za thupi. Zigawo zitatu zoyambirira zimapanga thorax. Katemera amakhala ndi miyendo itatu ya miyendo. Miyendo imeneyi imatchedwa miyendo yeniyeni. Zigawo zina 10 zimapanga mimba. Mimba ili ndi miyendo isanu ya miyendo yofewa yotchedwa prolegs. Zilondazi zimakhala ndi zingwezing'ono kumapeto kwa phazi lililonse. Iwo amagwiritsidwa ntchito kugwiritsabe ku zinthu. Zikopa zimatchedwa crochets.

Nkhupa[edit | sintha gwero]

Nkhupa (zambiri, ziphuphu) zimapangidwa pambuyo pomaliza molt. Mbozi idzapeza malo apadera kuti pupate (pupate amatanthauza kusintha kukhala pupa). Tsamba la m'mimba limachotsedwa. Mbozi imatulutsa khungu lake. Nkhupa tsopano yatsegulidwa. Matenda a mbozi amathyoledwa ndi kumangidwanso m'magulu a gulugufe. Nkhupa sangathe kusuntha. Icho chimamangirizidwa ku chinthu ndi zingwe zing'onozing'ono kumapeto kwa mimba. Zikopa izi zimapanga chomwe chimatchedwa cremaster. Pali mabowo ang'onoang'ono pa pupa. Amalola mpweya wopuma kulowa mkati ndi kunja kwa pupa.

Nkhumba zambiri zimakhala zosavuta kuti nyama zowonongeka ziwonongeke. Mbalame zina (m'banja la Hesperiidae ndi a Parnassiinae ndi a Satyrinae) zimapanga malo okhala ndi silika ndi masamba kuti adziteteze akakhala achikulire. Nyumbazi zimatchedwa cocoons. Amagulu a butterfly ambiri samakhala ndi makoko kuti aziteteze okha. M'malo mwake, ziphuphu zimakhala ndi mitundu yofiirira kapena yobiriwira kuti idzidzidzimutse pakati pa masamba ndi nthambi. Mankhusu omwe alibe cocoons amatchedwa chrysalids kapena chrysalises.

Kupulumuka[edit | sintha gwero]

Ena agulugufe akhoza kukhala m'mavuto chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa malo. Chifukwa cha kuwonongedwa kwa nkhalango ndi udzu, mitundu ina ya agulugufe alibe malo odyetsa ndi kuika mazira. Pofuna kuthandiza, anthu ena amabzala munda wa butterfly ndi maluwa okhala ndi timadzi tokoma kuti agulugufe azidya. Anthu ena amasunga zomera zomwe agulugufe amaika mazira, ndipo amasangalala kuyang'anitsitsa mbozi ndikudya zomera. Mipiritsi ya mankhwala yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kuti tizilombo tizilombo tisawonongeke m'munda wamaluwa, komanso iphani agulugufe.

Zolemba[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. Zomera 95 peresenti m'madera otentha otentha zimadalira zinyama kuti ziwonongeke kapena kufalitsa mbewu. Thomson, John N. 1994. Kusintha kwa zinthu . University of Chicago Press, p7.ISBN 0-226-79760-0
  2. Grimaldi D. ndi Engel M.S. 2005. Kusinthika kwa tizilombo . Cambridge University Press,p590–606. ISBN 0-521-82149-5
  3. Hall J.P.W; Robbins R.K. & Harvey D.J. (2004). "Kuchokera m'madzi ku Caribbean: Kutuluka kwa butterfly wofikira ku Dominican amber". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271: 797–801. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2691.

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