Hellebore

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Chithunzi cha m'ma 1900 cha Helleborus niger

Kawirikawiri amadziwika kuti hellebores mtundu wa Eurasian Helleborus uli ndi mitundu pafupifupi 20 ya zomera zoumba zoumba kapena zobiriwira mumtundu wa Ranunculaceae, momwe umatchulira mtundu wa Helleboreae. Ngakhale kuti maina monga "nyengo yozizira", "Khirisimasi ananyamuka" ndi "Lenten ananyamuka", hellebores sali ofanana kwambiri ndi a rosaceae. Mitundu yambiri ya hellebore ndi yoopsa.

Taxonomy[edit | sintha gwero]

Mtunduwu unakhazikitsidwa ndi Carl Linnaeus mu buku limodzi la zomera zake Plantarum mu 1753.

Dzina la sayansi Helleborus limachokera ku liwu lachigriki lachigriki lakuti λλέβορος (helléboros), dzina la H. orientalis, lopangidwa kuchokera ku ἑλεῖν (heleîn), kutanthauza kuti "kuvulaza", ndi βορά (borá), kutanthauza "chakudya"

Kufalitsa ndi kufotokoza[edit | sintha gwero]

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mtundu umenewu inayamba ku Ulaya ndi Asia. Mitundu yambiri ya zamoyo imapezeka ku Balkans. Mitundu ina yamatsenga (H. thibetanus) imachokera kumadzulo kwa China; Mitundu ina yamatsenga (H. vesicarius) imakhala m'dera laling'ono kumalire a Turkey ndi Syria.

Maluwawa ali ndi zipilala zisanu zazing'ono zozungulira pamphepete mwa mphete zazing'ono, zomwe zimakhala ngati "petals" zomwe zasinthidwa kuti zikhale ndi timadzi tokoma. Zisindikizo sizingagwe, koma zimakhalabe pamtunda, nthawi zina kwa miyezi yambiri. Kafukufuku waposachedwapa ku Spain akusonyeza kuti kuumirira kwa osamalidwa kumathandizira kuti mbewu zikhale bwino (Herrera 2005).

Tizilombo ndi matenda[edit | sintha gwero]

Tizilombo[edit | sintha gwero]

Phytomyza hellebori[edit | sintha gwero]

Mbalame yotchedwa Hellebore minerer, Phytomyza hellebori ndi ntchentche yaing'ono yomwe imadwalitsa zomera za H. foetidus yekha m'banja la Hellebore. Mbewu ya minda imathamanga pogwiritsa ntchito masamba a H. foetidus. Mitengoyi imapanga mabala a brownish pa zomera. Izi zidzasanduka malo otukuka kumene ntchentche zidzaika mphutsi zawo. Masamba adzatembenuka moyera pambali pomwe miyala ikugwedezeka pamene nthawi ikupitirira. Mphutsi idzayamba kudya mkati mwa masamba mu August, ndipo kuwonongeka kudzayamba kuchokera kumapeto kwa chilimwe mpaka kumayambiriro kwa masika.

Pofuna kuchepetsa zovuta kwambiri, masamba amatha kuchotsedwa miyezi yozizira isanafike ntchentche zikuluzikulu. Mankhwala ophera tizilombo angagwiritsidwe ntchito mopanda malire poletsa mphutsi ndi anthu othamanga m'munda. Mankhwala osokoneza bongo angayambitse ntchentche zazitsamba zopanda masamba ngati zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa nthawi ya maluwa a hellebore.

Macrosiphum hellebori[edit | sintha gwero]

Macrosiphum hellebori, commonly known as Hellebore aphid or greenfly, is a sap feeding aphid that infests the flowers and foliage of hellebore plants. The whitish-green aphids are about 2–4mm long and form dense colonies on hellebores, coating them with a honeydew that can lead to the growth of sooty mold on the leaves and flowers of the hellebore. This species of aphid only affect hellebores and are most active in March and April when the hellebores are flowering and when few aphid predators are around, though they may infest during any time of the year.

Aphids will start their feeding from the outside the flowers, beginning at the leaves and then moving towards the flower petals of the hellebore. As the hellebore beings to open, the aphids will try to move into the flower. The aphids will then feed on the inner parts of the plant as well as the young stems and shoots. As the population grows, the aphids will eventually eat the remaining parts of the plant, such as older leaves, for food.

Aphid infestations can be controlled through persistent squashing of the aphids manually, or by using insecticides. It is not recommended to spray flowering hellebores as it may harm the non-aphid pollinating insects

Matenda[edit | sintha gwero]

Botrytis cinerea[edit | sintha gwero]

Botrytis cinerea kapena gray mold ndi matenda a fungal omwe amachititsa zomera zokongola kwambiri. Nkhumba zimayambitsa kuwonongeka kwa minofu ya zomera ndipo zimakula ndi nkhungu zofiira kwambiri pamtunda, monga masamba, masamba, ndi maluwa. Mbali za zomerazo zikhoza kufota ndi kufa pambuyo poonekera kwa nkhungu, makamaka maluwa. Kawirikawiri bowa limangotulutsa zomera palimodzi kapena pamene chomeracho chili ndi nkhawa, koma chidziwikiranso kuti chimachititsa kuti zomera zizikhala mvula. Ngati chinyezi chili chochepa, nkhunguyo ikhoza kukhala ndi madontho pamtengowo, koma nkhungu imadziwika kuti ikufalikira mofulumira kwambiri. Grey nkhungu ikhoza kuyambitsa chomera nthawi iliyonse ya chaka ndipo sichidalira nyengo. Bowa lidzapanga mbewu zakuda monga zinyama m'mitengo yakufa kuti izipangitse kuti zikhale ndi moyo pamene zomera zatsopano zimasowa. Ma spores amafalikira pamlengalenga kupita ku zomera zatsopano.

Pofuna kuchiza chomera choyambitsa matenda, choyamba ndicho kuchotsa masamba ndi masamba, kufa ndi maluwa nthawi yomweyo limodzi ndi zipangizo zina zakufa pafupi ndi hellebore. Gawo lotsatira ndi kuchepetsa chinyezi kuzungulira chomeracho mwa kukonzanso mpweya wabwino ndi kuonetsetsa kuti zomera sizingatheke.

Nyumba yamakono yamakina osakanikirana[edit | sintha gwero]

Zolemba[edit | sintha gwero]

  • Herrera, Carlos M. (2005). "Post-floral perianth functionality: contribution of persistent sepals to seed development in Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 92 (9): 1486–91. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.9.1486. PMID 21646166.
  • Orphan reference: Graham Rice & Elizabeth Strangman, The Gardener's Guide to Growing Hellebores, David & Charles/Timber Press (1993) ISBN 0-7153-9973-X
  • Orphan reference: Brian Mathew, Hellebores, Alpine Garden Society (1989) ISBN 0-900048-50-6