Hepataitisi A

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hepataitisi A (matenda omwe poyamba ankatchedwa matenda opatsirana a hepataitisi) ndi matenda opatsirana omwe amagwira chiwindi ndipo amayambitsidwa ndi vailasi yotchedwa hepataitisi A (HAV).[1] Ambiri mwa anthu amene ali ndi mavailasi amenewa, makamaka ana, amasonyeza zizindikiro zochepa kapena sasonyeza n'komwe zizindikiro za matendawa.[2] Kwa anthu amene akusonyeza zizindikiro za matendawa, pamatenga milungu iwiri mpaka milungu 6 kuchokera pamene tizilomboti tinalowa m'thupi kuti zizindikiro ziyambe kuonekera.[3] Nthawi zambiri zizindikiro za matendawa zimaonekera kwa milungu 8 ndipo zina mwa zizindikirozo ndi: nseru, kusanza, kutsegula m'mimba, khungu kuchita chikasu, fkutentha thupi, komanso kumva kupweteka m'mimba.[2] Pafupifupi anthu 10 mpaka 15 pa 100 aliwonse amene asonyeza zizindikiro za matendawa, zizindikirozo zimayambiranso pakatipa miyezi 6 kuchokera pamene tizilombo ta matendawa tinalowa m'thupi.[2] Matendawa amatha kulepheretsa chiwindi kugwira bwino nthcito yake ndipo izi zimachitika makamaka kwa achikulire.[2]

Kawirikawiri matendawa amafalikira ngati munthu wadya chakudya kapena kumwa madzi omwe akhudzidwa ndi nyansi za kuchimbudzi zomwe zili ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa.[2] Nkhanu komanso ndiwo zina za m'gulu la nkhanu zomwe sizinaphikidwe mokwanira zimathanso kufalitsa tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa.[4] Matendawa amatha kufalanso ngati munthu yemwe ali ndi matendawa akukhudzana kwambiri ndi anthu ena.[2] Ngakhale kuti ana omwe ali ndi tizolombo toyambitsa matendawa sasonyeza zizindikiro zake, komabe anawo amatha kupatsira anthu ena matendawa.[2] Matendawa akalowa m'thupi la munthu koyamba munthuyo n'kuchira, munthuwo sangadwalenso matendawa kwa moyo wake wonse ngakhale tizilombo tochuluka titalowa m'thupi mwake.[5] Zizindikiro za hepataitisi A n'zofanana ndi zizindikiro za matenda ena ambiri choncho pamafunika kuyeza magazi kuti madokotala atsimikizire ngati munthu ali ndi matendawa.[2] Matenda a hepataitisi alipo mitundu yosiyanasiyana yokwanira 5 motengera mtundu wa vailasi umene umawayambitsa, monga: A, B, C, D, ndi E.

Katemera wa hepataitisi A amathandiza kwambiri kupewa matendawa.[2][6] Mayiko ena amalimbikitsa kuti ana onse azilandira katemera wa matendawa nthawi ndi nthawi makamaka ngati ali m'madera amene matendawa ndi ofala kwambiri.[2][7] Zikuoneka kuti munthu akangolandira katemerayu kamodzi, amagwira ntchito m'thupi mwake kwa moyo wake wonse.[2] Matendawa angapewedwe mosavuta potsatira njira zaukhondo monga kusamba m'manja komanso kuphika zakudya m'njira yabwino.[2] Matendawa alibe mankhwala, koma wodwala amapatsidwa mankhwala oti athane ndi zizindikiro za matendawa monga nseru kapena kutsegula m'mimba.[2] Nthawi zambiri munthu yemwe ali ndi tizolombo toyambitsa matendawa amakhala bwinobwino popanda vuto lililonse la chiwindi.[2] Koma ngati matendawa achititsa kut chiwindi chiwonongeke n'kumalephera kugwira bwino ntchito, pangafunike opaleshoni yochotsa chiwindicho n'kuika china.[2]

Padziko lonse, anthu 1.5 miliyoni amasonyeza zizindikiro za matendawa chaka chilichonse[2] ndipo zikuoneka kuti anthu mamiliyoni ambirimbiri amatenga tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa.[8] Matendawa ndi ofala kwambiri m'madera amene ukhondo ndi wovuta komanso madzi aukhondo ndi osowa.[7] M'mayiko amene akukwera kumene, pafupifupi ana 90 pa 100 aliwonse amakhala atatenga tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa akamafika pokwanitsa zaka 10 zakubadwa, choncho sangadwale matendawa akafika pa msinkhu wauchikulire.[7] M'mayiko amene ndi olemera ndithu, nthawi zambiri matendawa amafika pokhala mliri chifukwa ana m'mayiko oterewa salandira katemera wa matendawa komanso matupi awo amakhala asanazolowere tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa.[7] Mu 2010, matenda a hepataitisi A anapha anthu okwana 102,000 padziko lonse.[9] Choncho panakhazikitsidwa Tsiku Lokumbukira Matenda a Hepataitisi Padziko Lonse lomwe ndi pa July 28 chaka chilichonse ndipo cholinga chake ndi kuthandiza anthu kuti adziwe za kuopsa kwa matenda a hepataitisi.[7]

  1. Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 541–4. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 Matheny, SC; Kingery, JE (1 December 2012). "Hepatitis A." Am Fam Physician. 86 (11): 1027–34, quiz 1010–2. PMID 23198670.
  3. Connor BA (2005). "Hepatitis A vaccine in the last-minute traveler". Am. J. Med. 118 (Suppl 10A): 58S–62S. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.07.018. PMID 16271543.
  4. Bellou, M.; Kokkinos, P.; Vantarakis, A. (March 2013). "Shellfish-borne viral outbreaks: a systematic review". Food Environ Virol. 5 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1007/s12560-012-9097-6. PMID 23412719.
  5. The Encyclopedia of Hepatitis and Other Liver Diseases. Infobase. 2006. p. 105. ISBN 9780816069903.
  6. Irving, GJ.; Holden, J.; Yang, R.; Pope, D. (2012). "Hepatitis A immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis A.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 7: CD009051. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009051.pub2. PMID 22786522.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 "Hepatitis A Fact sheet N°328". World Health Organization. July 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  8. Wasley, A; Fiore, A; Bell, BP (2006). "Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination". Epidemiol Rev. 28: 101–11. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxj012. PMID 16775039.
  9. Lozano, R; Naghavi, M; Foreman, K; Lim, S; Shibuya, K; Aboyans, V; Abraham, J; Adair, T; Aggarwal, R,; Ahn, SY; et al. (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.