Hepataitisi B

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Hepataitisi B ndi matenda opatsirana omwe amayambitsira ndi mavailasi otchedwa hepataitisi B virus (HBV) ndipo amagwira chiwindi. Tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tikalowa m'matupi kwa anthu ena anthuwo sangadwale pomwe ena amadwala kwambiri. Anthu ambiri sasonyeza zizindikiro zilizonse za matendawa tizilomboti tikangolowa m'thupi mwawo. Koma ena amayamba kusonyeza zizindikiro nthawi mwachangu kwambiri moti amayamba kusanza, khungu limachita chikasu, amakhala otupa, amakodza mkodzo woderapo komanso amamva kupweteka m'mimba.[1] Nthawi zambiri zizindikirozi zimaonekera kwa milungu ingapo ndipo si zichitika kawirikawiri kuti munthu amwalire ndi zizindikiro zoyambirirazi.[1][2] Kuchokera pamene tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa talowa m'thupi, pangatenge masiku 30 mpaka 180 kuti zizindikiro za matendawa ziyambe kuonekera.[1] Ana 90 pa 100 aliwonse amene tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa timalowa m'thupi mwawo pa nthawo yobadwa kapena atangobadwa kumene amadwala kwambiri matenda a hepataitisi B, pomwe ndi ana 10 okha pa 100 aliwonse amene amadwala kwambiri matendawa ngati tizilomboti talowa m'thupi mwawo atakwanitsa zaka 5.[3] Anthu ochuluka omwe amadwala kwambiri matendawa sasonyeza zizindikiro zoonekeratu; koma pakapita nthawi, chiwindi chawo chimatha kuputa kapenanso angathe kudwala khanso ya m'chiwindi.[4] Mavuto akuluakulu amenewa amachititsa kuti anthu oyambira pa 15 mpaka 25 pa 100 aliwonse amwalire ndi matendawa.[1]

Mavailasi omwe amayambitsa matendawa amafalikira kwa anthu ena kudzera m'magazi kapena m'madzi ena m'magazi.Anthu ambiri amatenga matenda a hepataitisi B pa nthawi yobadwa kapena amawatenga pa nthawi yomwe anali ana, ndipo imeneyi ndi njira yaikulu imene matendawa amafalira. M'madera amene matendawa si ofala kwenikweni, matendawa amafala kwambiri chifukwa chogwiritsira ntchito mankhwala ozunguza bongo ndiponso kudzera m'kugonana.[1] Njira zina zimene zingachititse munthu kutenga matendawa ndi: kugwira ntchito zaumoyo, kuikidwa magazi, njira yachipatala yochotsera madzi m'thupi, kukhala nyumba imodzi ndi munthu amene ali ndi matendawa, kupita kumayiko amene matendawa ndi ofala kwambiri, ndiponso kukhala pamalo amene pakukhala anthu ambirimbiri.[1][3] M'zaka za m'ma 1980, zinadziwika kuti zipangizo zojambulira matatuwu ndiponso masingano ochiritsira zinathandizira kuti matendawa afale; koma masiku ano vutoli lachepa chifukwa zipangizo zimenezi zikumatsukidwa bwino ndi mankhwala moti sizingafalitsenso matendawa.[5] Mavailasi a hepataitisi B sangafalikire ngati anthu atagwirana manja, kudyera mbale imodzi, kukisana, kuhagana, kukhosomola, kuyetsemula, kapena kuyamwitsa mwana.[3] Madokotala angathe kuyeza munthu ndi kudziwa ngati ali ndi matendawa ngati papita masiku oyambira pa 30 mpaka 60 kuchokera pamene tizilomboti talowa m'thupi. Kawirikawiri madokotala amayeza magazi kuti adziwe ngati muli tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa komanso kuti adziwe ngati muli maselo ambiri olimbana ndi mavailasi.[1] Matendawa ali m'gulu la matenda a hepataitisi omwe amayambitsidwa ndi mavailasi awa: A, B, C, D, ndi E.

Kuyambira mu 1982, panakonzedwa katemera wothandiza kupewa matendawa.[1][6] Bungwe la World Health Organization limalimbikitsa zonse mwana aliyense azipatsidwa katemerayu pa tsiku limene wabadwa ngati zili zotheka kutero. Pakapita nthawi, munthu aliyense amafunika kulandira katemerayu kachiwiri kapenanso kachitatu n'cholinga choti akhale wotetezeka kwambiri. Katemerayu amathandiza kwambiri moti anthu 95 pa 100 aliwonse amene apatsidwa katemerayu, sadwala ngakhale pang'ono matendawa.[1] Mayiko 180 padziko lonse akhala akupereka katemerayu kwa anthu awo kuyambira mu 2006.[7] Kwa anthu amene akufuna kuikidwa magazi, ndi bwino kuti magaziwo aziyezedwa kaye n'kutsimikizira kuti alibe tizilombo toyambitsa hepataitisi B, komanso makondomu ayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati m'modzi mwa anthu amene akufuna kugonanawo ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa. Wodwala akangoyamba kumene kusonyeza zizindikiro za matendawa, akuyenera kusamalidwa bwino mogwirizana ndi zizindikiro zimene ali nazo. Anthu amene akudwala kwambiri matendawa angapatsidwe mankhwala a antiviral monga tenofovir komanso interferon, ngakhale kuti mankhwala amenewa ndi okwera mtengo.Nthawi zina pangafunike opaleshoni yochotsa chiwindi ndi kuika china ngati chiwindicho chawonongeka kwambiri.[1]

Zikuoneka kuti munthu m'modzi pa atatu aliwonse padziko lonse tizilombo toyambitsa hepataitisi B tinalowapo m'thupi mwawo, ndipo anthu oyambira pa 240 miliyoni mpaka kufika pa 350 miliyoni anadwala kwambiri ndi matendawa.[1][8] Ndipo chaka chilichonse, anthu 750,000 amamwalira ndi matenda a hepataitisi B.[1] Masiku ano matendawa ndi ofala kwambiri m'mayiko a ku East Asia ndi ku Kumunsi kwa chipululu cha Sahara, ku Africa ndipo anthu akuluakulu oyambira pa 5 mpaka 10 pa 100 aliwonse amadwala kwambiri matendawa. Koma anthu omwe amadwala matendawa ku Ulaya ndi ku North America ndi ochepa kwambiri, moti ndi munthu m'modzi yekha pa 100 aliwonse amene angadwale matendawa.[1] Matenda a hepataitisi B poyamba ankadziwika ndi dzina lakuti hepataitisi ya m'madzi a m'magazi.[9] Akatswiri ochita kafukufuku akofuna kukonza chakudya chimene chizikhala ndi katemera wa HBV.[10] Zikuoneka kuti matendawa akhoza kugwiranso anyani akuluakulu.[11]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 "Hepatitis B  Fact sheet N°204". who.int. July 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  2. Raphael Rubin; David S. Strayer (2008). Rubin's Pathology : clinicopathologic foundations of medicine ; [includes access to online text, cases, images, and audio review questions!] (5th ed.). Philadelphia [u.a.]: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 638. ISBN 9780781795166.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public — Transmission". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  4. Chang MH (June 2007). "Hepatitis B virus infection". Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 12 (3): 160–167. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.013. PMID 17336170.
  5. Thomas HC (2013). Viral Hepatitis (4th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 83. ISBN 9781118637302.
  6. Pungpapong S, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ (2007). "Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: an Update for Clinicians". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (8): 967–975. doi:10.4065/82.8.967. PMID 17673066.
  7. Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology. 44 (3): 521–526. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687.
  8. Schilsky ML (2013). "Hepatitis B "360"". Transplantation Proceedings. 45 (3): 982–985. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.02.099. PMID 23622604.
  9. Barker LF, Shulman NR, Murray R, Hirschman RJ, Ratner F, Diefenbach WC, Geller HM (1996). "Transmission of serum hepatitis. 1970". Journal of the American Medical Association. 276 (10): 841–844. doi:10.1001/jama.276.10.841. PMID 8769597.
  10. Thomas, Bruce (2002). Production of Therapeutic Proteins in Plants. p. 4. ISBN 9781601072542. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  11. Plotkin, [edited by] Stanley A.; Orenstein,, Walter A.; Offit, Paul A. (2013). Vaccines (6th. ed.). [Edinburgh]: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 208. ISBN 9781455700905.