Holokosti

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Holokosti kapena Holocaust mu Chingerezi ndi kuphedwa kwa anthu achiyuda aku Ulaya mu nkhondo yayikulu yachiwiri. Pakati pa zaka za 1941 ndi 1945, mu dziko la Germany komanso madera olamulilidwa ndi Germany ku Ulaya, anthu achipani chaNazi ndi anzawo anapha anthu achiyuda okwana maliliyoni asanu ndi imodzi, chimene chinali chiwelengero cha muyuda mmodzi aliyense mwa atatu opezeka ku Ulaya. Kuphedwa kwa anthu kumachitika ngati chipwirikiti ndi ziwawa komanso kuwombela anthu ambiri nthawi imodzi; komanso mundondomeko imenene inakhazikitsidwa kudzela mu ntchito imene imachitika mu ma kampu wosunga ayuda; ndi muzipinda zokhazikitsidwa ndi magasi omwe anakozedwa kuti azipha anthu achiyuda mu madera a (Ochiwitsi) Auschwitz, (Belezeki ) Bełżec, (Chemo) Chełmno, (Majidaneki) Majdanek, (sobibo) Sobibór, ndi (Trebulinka) Treblinka ku Polandi[1].

Germany inakonza kuzunza anthu achiyuda mu zigawo. Adolf Hitler atangosankhidwa kukhala chancellor wa Germany pa 30 Januwale mu chaka cha 1933, Germany inamanga kampu zoyikako anthu amene amatsutsa ulamuliro wachiNazi komanso anthu amene amawonedwa osafunikila. Pamene Hitler anapatsidwa mphamvu zonse zolamulira Germany, boma lake linayamba kuchita za tsankho kusala anthu achiyuda mu ntchito zaboma, komanzo ntchito zamalonda zoyendetsedwa ndi anthu achiyuda. Pa 9 mpaka kufikila pa 10 Novembala mu chaka cha 1938, mabizinesi komanso manyumba ndi zomangamanga za anthu achiyuda zinawotchedwa ndiponso katundu wambiri anabedwa mu dziko la Germany ndi Austria (zimezezi zimatchedwa usiku wamagalasi osweka ("Kristallnacht" muchiJeremani komanso "Night of broken glass" mu chingerezi). Germany ikangolowa mu dziko la Polandi mu seputembala chaka cha 1939, zimene zinayambitsa nkhondo yayikulu yachiwiri, boma la Germany linakhazikitsa madera okhala Ayuda okhaokha otchedwa geto (ghetto). Sipanapite nthawi, mazana amakampu komanso malo osungila anthu omangidwa anakhazikitstdwa mu malo ambiri omwe amalamulilidwa ndi Germany ku Ulaya.

Kusungidwa kwa anthu achiyuda ku mageto kunakhazikitsidwa mu ndondomeko imene a Nazi anakhazikitsa yotchedwa Yankho Lomaliza (Final Solution mu chingerezi) ku Funso la Ayuda (The Jewish Question mu chingerezi), zimene zinakambilanidwa ndi akuluakulu a chipani cha chiNazi pa khoferensi ya Wannsee ku Berlin mu chaka cha 1942. Mumadera onse amene Germany analanda ku Ulaya, zonse zofuna kuthana ndi anthu achiyuda zinakonzedwa. Moyendetsedwa ndi a SS, komanso kutsogozedwa ndi akuluakulu a chipani cha Nazi, anthu achiyuda ambiri anaphedwa. Anthu achiyuda okwana 1.3 miliyoni anaphedwa powomberedwa mu magulu pamodzi komanso ziwawa zomwe zimapangidwa ndi achinyamata achiGermany mogwirizana ndi asilikali aku Germany mu zaka za ma 1941 ndi 1945. Mumkati mwa chaka cha 1942, anthu achiyuda anayamba kuchotsedwa mu mageto ndipo amayikidwa mu masitima kupita ku makampu. Ngati anthuwa sanafe paulendowu, amaphedwa muzipinda zamagasi, kapena amagwiritsidwa ntchito, kapena kumenyedwa mpakana kufa, kapena kufa ndi matenda, kapena kugwiritsa mukafukufuku wa sayansi wofufuza mamkhwala komanso kuyenda mtunda wautali pansi. Anthu achiyuda anapitirizidwa kuphedwa mpaka kumathero a nkhondo yayikulu yachiwiri mu mwezi wa meyi mu chaka cha 1945.

Anthu achiyuda okhala ku ulaya anaphedwa ngati gawo lalikulu la nthawi ya holokosti mu zaka za ma 1933 mpakana 1945, mumene Germany ndi anthu ena okhuzidwa anazunza ndi kupha anthu ena mamiliyoni monga, anthu achi polo, ankhondo ogwidwa aku Soviet, anthu achiroma jipise, anthu olumala, amboni za yehova, adani andale, abambo okwatilana abambo okhaokha ndiponso anthu akuda aku German.

  1. "Killing Centers: An Overview". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017.