Jacques Offenbach

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Offenbach mu 1860s

Jacques Offenbach (20 Juni 1819 - 5 Okutobala 1880) anali wolemba waku France wobadwira ku Germany, wolemba zimbale komanso impresario wa nthawi yachikondi. Amamukumbukira chifukwa cha ma opereta ake pafupifupi 100 a m'ma 1850 mpaka ma 1870, ndi opera yake yomwe sanamalize The Tales of Hoffmann. Adawakopa kwambiri olemba nyimbo za operetta, makamaka a Johann Strauss Jr. ndi Arthur Sullivan. Ntchito zake zodziwika bwino zidatsitsimutsidwa nthawi zonse m'zaka za zana la 20, ndipo ambiri mwa opereta ake akupitilizabe ku 21. The Tales of Hoffmann amakhalabe gawo la malo owerengera opera.[1]

Wobadwira ku Cologne, mwana wa sunagoge wa cantor, Offenbach adawonetsa luso loyimba. Ali ndi zaka 14, adalandiridwa ngati wophunzira ku Paris Conservatoire koma adapeza kuti maphunziro samakhutiritsa ndipo adachoka patatha chaka. Kuchokera mu 1835 mpaka 1855 adapeza ndalama zokhazokha monga woimba ma cell, ndikupeza kutchuka kwapadziko lonse lapansi, komanso ngati woyendetsa. Cholinga chake, komabe, chinali choti apange zoseweretsa zosewerera nyimbo. Atapeza oyang'anira kampani ya Paris 'Opéra-Comique osachita chidwi ndi zolemba zake, mu 1855 adachita lendi malo ochitira zisudzo ku Champs-Élysées. Kumeneko adawonetsa zidutswa zake zazing'ono, zomwe zambiri zidatchuka.[2]

Mu 1858, Offenbach adapanga operetta yake yoyamba, Orphée aux enfers ("Orpheus in the Underworld"), yomwe idalandiridwa bwino kwambiri ndipo idakhalabe imodzi mwamagawo omwe adasewera kwambiri. M'zaka za m'ma 1860, adapanga ma operetas osachepera 18, komanso zidutswa zingapo. Ntchito zake kuyambira nthawi imeneyi anali La belle Hélène (1864), La Vie parisienne (1866), La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein (1867) ndi La Périchole (1868). Nthabwala zowopsa (nthawi zambiri zokhudzana ndi zachiwerewere) komanso zokometsera zazing'ono kwambiri, pamodzi ndi malo a Offenbach oyimbira, zidawapangitsa kudziwika padziko lonse lapansi, komanso matanthauzidwe adachita bwino ku Vienna, London ndi kwina kulikonse ku Europe.[3]

Offenbach adalumikizana ndi Ufumu Wachiwiri waku France wa Napoleon III; Emperor ndi khothi lake adakhuta mosiyanasiyana m'masewera ambiri a Offenbach. Napoleon III adam'patsa nzika zaku France komanso Légion d'Honneur. Pakubuka kwa nkhondo ya Franco-Prussian mu 1870, Offenbach adapezeka kuti sanakondedwa ku Paris chifukwa cholumikizana ndi mafumu komanso kubadwa kwake ku Germany. Anakhalabe wopambana ku Vienna ndi London, komabe. Adadzikhazikitsanso ku Paris mzaka za m'ma 1870, ndikutsitsimutsidwa kwa ena mwaomwe adakonda kale ndi ntchito zatsopano, ndipo adapita ku U.S. M'zaka zake zomaliza adayesetsa kumaliza The Tales of Hoffmann, koma adamwalira zisanachitike pulogalamu ya opera, yomwe idalowa m'malo omasulira omwe adamaliza kapena kusinthidwa ndi oyimba ena.[4]

Zolemba[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  1. Gammond, p. 18
  2. Gammond, p. 15
  3. Harding, p. 19
  4. Faris, p. 14