Katemera wa chikuku

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Katemera wa chikuku ndi katemera amene amathandiza kwambiri popewa matenda a chikuku.[1] Ana osapitirira miyezi 9 akalandira katemera mmodzi yekha, 85 peresenti ya anawo amakhala otetezeka moti sangadwale matendawa, ndipo 95 peresenti ya ana opitirira miyezi 12 sangadwale akalandira katemerayu.[2] Pafupifupi anthu onse omwe sakhala ndi chitetezo chokwanira cholimbana ndi matendawa atalandira katemera woyamba amakhala ndi chitetezochi akalandira katemera wachiwiri. Katemerayu akaperekedwa kwa anthu opitirira 93 pa 100 aliwonse m'dera linalake, kawirikawiri palibenso munthu wa m'deralo amene angadwale amatenda a chikuku. Katemerayu amagwira ntchito kwa zaka zambiri m'thupi la munthu. Koma sizikudziwika ngati katemerayu amayamba kuchepa mphamvu pakapita zaka zambiri ali m'thupi la munthu. Katemerayu amathanso kuteteza munthu kuti asadwale chikuku ngati waperekedwa kwa munthuyo patangopita masiku ochepa kuchokera pamene tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa talowa m'thupi la munthuyo.[1]

Ndipo katemerayu ndi wosaopsa ngakhale kwa anthu amene ali ndi kachirombo ka HIV. Pamakhala mavuto ochepa kwambiri oyambitsidwa ndi katemerayu ndipo mavutowo si oopsa komanso sakhalitsa. Mavuto ake angakhale kumva ululu pamalo amene mwabayidwa jakisoni komanso kutentha thupi. Munthu mmodzi pa anthu 100,000 aliwonse amatha kuyamba vuto la Anaphylaxis.Ndipo anthu ochepa kwambiri mwa anthu amene alandira katemerayu amathanso kuyamba vuto la Guillian-Barre syndrome, autism ndiponso kutsegula m'mimba.[1]

Katemera wa matendawa alipo wa mitundu yosiyanasiyana, monga wa chikuku chenicheni komanso wa chikuku cha rubella, mumps, ndiponso chikuku cha varicella (amatchedwanso katemera wa MMR ndiponso katemera wa MMRV). Mitundu yonseyi ya katemera imagwira ntchito bwinobwino. Bungwe la World Health Organization linapereka malangizo akuti katemerayu aziperekedwa kwa mwana aliyense mwanayo akangokwanitsa miyezi 9 m'madera amene matenda a chikuku ndi ofala. Koma m'madera amene matendawa si ofala, mwana amayenera kulandira katemerayu akakwanitsa miyezi 12 ya kubadwa. Katemerayu amapangidwa ndi tizilombo tamoyo. Amakhala waufa ndipo amayenera kusungunulidwa kuti alowe m'thupi la munthu kaya kudzera pakhungu kapena m'minofu. Munthu yemwe yapatsidwa katemerayu angayezedwe magazi pofuna kutsimikizira ngati katemerayu akugwiradi ntchito yake m'thupi.[1]

Mu 2013, ana 85 pa ana 100 aliwonse analandira katemerayu padziko lonse.[3] Mu 2008 mayiko osachepera pa 192 anapereka katemerayu maulendo awiri.[1] Katemera wa chikuku anayamba kuperekedwa kwa anthu mu 1963.[2] Kenako mu 1971 katemera wa mitundu iwiri ya chikuku anayamba kuperekedwa kwa anthu.[4] Ndipo mu 2005, katemera wa katsabola anaphatikizidwa pa mitundu ya katemera wa chikuku n'kukhala katemera wotchedwa MMRV.[5] Katemera ameneyu ali pa gulu la World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, yemwe ndi katemera wofunika kwambiri pa moyo wa munthu amene ayenera kuperedwa ndi  a zaumoyo komanso a zachipatala.[6] Ndipotu katemera wa chikuku si wokwera mtengo.[1]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Measles vaccines: WHO position paper" (PDF). Weekly epidemiological record. 84 (35): 349-60. 28 August 2009. PMID 19714924.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Control, Centers for Disease; Prevention (2014). CDC health information for international travel 2014 the yellow book. p. 250. ISBN 9780199948505.
  3. "Measles Fact sheet N°286". who.int. November 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  4. "Vaccine Timeline". Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  5. Mitchell, Deborah (2013). The essential guide to children's vaccines. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 127. ISBN 9781466827509.
  6. "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.