Khate

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Khate
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
ICD/CIM-10 A30 A30
ICD/CIM-9 030 030
OMIM 246300
DiseasesDB 8478
MedlinePlus 001347

Khate, lomwenso limatchedwa matenda a Hansen (HD), ndi okhalitsa omwe amayambitsidwa ndi mabakiteriya otchedwaMycobacterium laprae ndiponso Mycobacterium lepromatosis.[1] Kawirikawiri tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tikalowa m'thupi, pamatenga nthawi yombira pa zaka 5 mpaka 20 kuti zizindikiro za matendawa ziyambe kuonekera.[2]Zina mwa zizindikiro zake ndi kutupa kwa malo amene mwadutsa minyewa, kutupa kwa ziwalo zothandiza kupuma, kutupa kwa khungu ndiponso maso.[2] Zimenezi zingachititse kuti wodwalayo asamamve ululu, zomwe zimachititsa kuti azivulala mobwerezabwereza mpaka ziwalo zina kuduka, kapenanso azikhala ndi zolonda zosapola.[3] Nthawi zina wodwalayo amakhala wofooka ndipo saona bwinobwino.[3]

Matenda a khate ndi opatsirana. Zikuoneka kuti munthu amene ali ndi matendawa angapatsire ena potsokomola kapena ngati anthu enawo angakhudze mamina a munthuyo. [4] Kawirikawiri anthu osauka ndi amene amadwala khate ndipo zikuoneka kuti amapatsirana kwambiri poyetsemula.[3] Koma mosiyana ndi zimene anthu ambiri amakhulupirira, sikuti matendawa amafalikira kwa anthu ena mosavuta.[3] Matendawa ali m'magulu awiri akuluakulu potengera kuchuluka kwa mtundu wa tizilombo timene tawayambitsa, monga: pauchibacillary ndi multbacillary.[3] Magulu awiri a matendawa amasiyanitsidwa potengera kuchuluka kwa malo otuwa ndiponso malo amene khungu lafa. Ngati nthendayo ili m'gulu la paucibacillary, malo otuwa kapena amene khungu lafa amakhala osapitirira pa 5, ndipo ngati ili m'gulu la multibacillary, malowo amakhala oposa pa 5.[3] Pofuna kutsimikizira ngati munthu ali ndi matendawa, madokotala amayeza kuti aone ngati tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tikupezeka pakhungu la munthuyo kapenanso amayeza DNA yake pogwiritsa ntchito njira yoyezera.[3]

Matenda a khate ndi ochiritsika ndipo mankhwala a mitundu ingapo amaphatikizidwa polimbana ndi matendawa.[2] Mankhwala omwe amachiritsa khate la m'gulu la paucibacillary amatchedwa dapsone ndi rifampicin ndipo wodwala amayenera kulandira thandizoli kwa miyezi 6.[3] Pomwe mankhwala a khate la m'gulu la multibacillary ndi rifampicin, dapsone, ndiponso clofazimine ndipo amayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa miyezi 12.[3] Chithandizo cha mankhwala amenewa n'chaulere ndipo chimaperekedwa ndi Bungwe Loona za Umoyo Padziko Lonse.[2] Munthu amene akudwala matendawa angapatsidwenso mankhwala ena osiyanasiyana olimbana ndi mabakiteriya.[3] M'chaka cha 2012, chiwerengero cha anthu odwala khate padziko lonse chinali 89,000, ndipo chiwerengerochi n'chochepa tikayerekezera ndi anthu 5.2 miliyoni omwe anali ndi matendawa m'zaka za m'ma 1980.[2][5][6] Ndipo anthu atsopano amene anayamba kudwala matendawa m'chakachi anali 230,000.[2] Ambiri mwa anthu amenewa anali a m'mayiko 16. Pamayiko amenewo, anthu ochuluka zedi kuposa hafu ya anthu atsopano amene anayamba kudwala matendawa anali a ku India.[2][3] Pa zaka 20 zapitazi, anthu 16 miliyoni padziko lonse achira matenda a khate.[2] Ndipo pafupifupi anthu 200 amapezeka ndi matenda a khate chaka chilichonse m'dziko la United States.[7]

Anthu akhala akuvutika ndi matenda a khate kwa zaka masauzande ambirimbiri.[3] Mawu achingelezi amene pa Chichewa tawamasulira kuti khate, anachokera kumawu a Chilatini akuti lepra, omwe amatanthauza "mamba", ndipo mawu akuti "matenda a Hansen" anachokera kudzina la dokotala wotchedwa Gerhard Armauer Hansen.[3] Kutenga anthu odwala khate n'kumawasiya m'nyumba zosungira odwala matendawa kukuchitikabe m'madera ena monga ku India,[8] China,[9] ndiponso ku Africa.[10] Komabe, nyumba zambiri zosungira odwala khate zatsekedwa chifukwa anthu ayamba kuzindikira kuti matendawa sangafalikire kwa anthu ena mwachisawawa.[10]Kuyambira kale kwambiri, anthu akhala a Kusalana ndipo zimenezi zimachititsa kuti anthu ena akaona kuti mwina ali ndi khate, asamapite kuchipatala n'kulandira chithandizo mofulumira. [2] Ndipo ena amaona kuti mawu akuti "wakhate" ndi onyoza, poyerekezera ndi mawu kuti "munthu amene ali ndi vuto la khate".[11] Tsiku Loganizira za Matenda Akhate Padziko Lonse linakhazikitsidwa mu 1954 n'cholinga chothandiza anthu kudziwa zambiri za matendawa.[12]

Malifalensi[edit | edit source]

  1. "New Leprosy Bacterium: Scientists Use Genetic Fingerprint To Nail 'Killing Organism'". ScienceDaily. 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 "Leprosy Fact sheet N°101". World Health Organization. Jan 2014. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Suzuki K, Akama T, Kawashima A, Yoshihara A, Yotsu RR, Ishii N (February 2012). "Current status of leprosy: epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives.". The Journal of dermatology 39 (2): 121–9. PMID 21973237. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01370.x. 
  4. "Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Transmission". cdc.gov. April 29, 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  5. "Global leprosy situation, 2012". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 87 (34): 317–28. August 2012. PMID 22919737. 
  6. Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj (June 2011). "Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps.". The Lancet infectious diseases 11 (6): 464–70. PMID 21616456. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70006-8. 
  7. "Hansen's Disease Data & Statistics". Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  8. Walsh F (2007-03-31). "The hidden suffering of India's lepers". BBC News. 
  9. Lyn TE (2006-09-13). "Ignorance breeds leper colonies in China". Independat News & Media. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Byrne, Joseph P. (2008). Encyclopedia of pestilence, pandemics, and plagues. Westport, Conn.[u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 351. ISBN 9780313341021. 
  11. editors, Enrico Nunzi, Cesare Massone, (2012). Leprosy a practical guide. Milan: Springer. p. 326. ISBN 9788847023765. 
  12. McMenamin, Dorothy (2011). Leprosy and stigma in the South Pacific : a region-by-region history with first person accounts. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 17. ISBN 9780786463237.