Kugwiritsa ntchito mowa mopweteka

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Khalidwe logwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo, lomwenso limadziwika kuti kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala ozunguza bongo, ndi chizolowezi chomwe munthu amakonda kumwa kapena kulowetsa m'thupi mankhwala ochuluka kwambiri omwe angathe kuwononga moyo wa munthuyo ndipo munthu wotere ndiye kuti ali ndi vuto logwiritsira ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo. Anthu osiyanasiyana ogwira ntchito zachipatala komanso ogwira ntchito zamalamulo ndi zachitetezo amaperekanso matanthauzo osiyanasiyananso a mawu oti kugwiritsira ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo. Nthawi zina munthu akagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo amatha kusonyeza khalidwe lachilendo ngakhalenso kuyamba kuchita zachiwawa ndipo m'kupita kwa nthawi, khalidwe la munthuyo lingathe kusinthiratu n'kukhala loipa kwambiri.[1] Kuwonjezera pa mavuto okhudza khalidwe ndiponso umoyo, munthu yemwe akugwiritsira ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo angathenso kuimbidwa mlandu ndi boma, malinga ndi malamulo a m'dera limene munthuyo akukhala.[2]

Mankhwala ndiponso zinthu zina zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mosayenera pofuna kusangalala ndi monga: zoledzeretsa, chamba, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, kokeni, methaqualone, opioids ndiponso mankhwala a substituted amphetamines. Akatswiri sakudziwa bwinobwino chimene chimachititsa kuti munthu ayambe kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo. Koma amaganizira zinthu ziwiri izi: kutsanzira ena, kapena kukhala ndi chilakolako chosalamulirika chofuna mankhwalawo chomwe chimachititsa munthuyo kumangodalira mankhwalawo.[3]

Mu 2010 anthu 5 pa 100 alionse padziko lonse (230 miliyoni) ankagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo.[4] Pa anthu amenewa, anthu 27 miliyoni anali oti sangathe kukhala opanga kugwiritsira ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo moti ali ndi mavuto ena okhudza umoyo, maganizo ndiponso mavuto ena.[4][5] M'chaka cha 2015 chokha, anthu 307,400 anafa ndipo mu 1990, anthu 165,000 anafa chifukwa cha mavuto amene anayamba chifukwa chogwiritsira ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo.[6][7] Mwa anthu amenewa, anthu ochuluka zedi anafa chifukwa cha mavuto okhudzana ndi mowas ndipo anthuwo anakwana 137,500, kugwiritsira ntchito mankhwala a opioid kunachititsa kuti anthu 122,100 afe, kugwiritsira ntchito mankhwala a amphetamine kunachititsa kuti anthu 12,200 afe, ndipokugwiritsira ntchito kokeni kunachititsa kuti anthu 11,100 afe.[6] Template:TOC limit



References[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. Ksir, Oakley Ray; Charles (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th ed.). Boston [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0072319631.
  2. (2002). Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary. Sixth Edition. Drug abuse definition, p. 552. Nursing diagnoses, p. 2109. ISBN 0-323-01430-5.
  3. "Addiction is a Chronic Disease". Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "World Drug Report 2012" (PDF). UNITED NATIONS. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  5. "EMCDDA | Information on the high-risk drug use (HRDU) (formerly 'problem drug use' (PDU)) key indicator". www.emcdda.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
  6. 6.0 6.1 GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  7. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385: 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.