Matenda oyamba chifukwa cha uchembere

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Matenda oyamba chifukwa cha uchembere
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
ICD/CIM-10O85 O85
ICD/CIM-9672 672

Matenda oyamba chifukwa cha uchembere, omwenso amadziwika kuti matenda oyamba ndi ubereki, kuphwanya thupi chifukwa chobereka kapena kuphwanya thupi kwa ubereki, amayamba chifukwa cha tizilombo ta bakiteriya tomwe talowa m'chiberekero pa nthawi imene mayi amabereka mwana kapena pamene wapititsa padera. Kawirikakwiri zizindikiro zake zimakhala kuphwanya thupi kutentha thupi, Template:Convert kuzizidwa, kumva kumwateka m'mimba, ndipo nthawi zina kutulutsa fungo loipa kukha kumaliseche.[1] Nthawi zambiri zimenezi zimachitika pakangotha maola 24 mayi atabereka kapena kupititsa padera, mpaka kufika pa masiku 10.[2]

Kawirikawiri tizilombo toyambitsa matendati timalowa m'chiberekero ndipo timathanso kukhudza mbali zina zoyandikna ndi chiberekerocho kapena zozungulira chiberekerocho. Zinthu zimene zimachititsa kuti mavutowa ayambe mosavuta ndi monga kuchitidwa opaleshoni, bakiteriya wamtundu winawake wotchedwa streptococcus wa gulu B akalowa kumaliseche, khungu la mkati mwa chiberekero likayamba kuchoka nthawi yake isanakwane, ndiponso ngati padutsa nthawi yaitali kwambiri ululu wa pobereka utayamba koma mwana sakutuluka, ndi zina zotero. Ndipo kawirikakwiri mavutowa amakhala oti ayambitsidwa ndi bakiteriya wa mitundu ingapo yosiyanasiyana. Madokotala amatha kudziwa mitundu ya mabakiteriya imene yayambitsa mavutowo ngati ayeza timadzi ta kumaliseche kapena magazi. Amayi omwe sakuchira matendawo ngakhale kuti alandira thandizo amafunika kuwayezanso bwinobwino. Zinthu zina zimene zimachititsa kuti amayi azidwala akangobereka kumene ndi izi: kuchuluka kwambiri kwa mkaka m'mabere, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tomwe talowa kumaliseche, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tomwe talowa m'mimba m'mimba ndi m'chiberekero.[1]

Chifukwa cha mavuto amene angakhalepo mayi akachitidwa opaleshoni, madokotala amalimbikitsa zoti mayi aliyense azipatsidwa mankhwala othandiza thupi kulimbana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda monga a ampicillin pa nthawi imene akuchitidwa opaleshoni. Palinso mankhwala othandiza kumatenda odziwika bwino ndipo munthu amatha kupeza bwino pakangopita masiku awiri kapena atatu basi atalandira mankhwalawa. Kwa amayi amene sakupeza bwino koma matendawo sanafike povuta, mankhwala okumwa othandiza thupi kulimbana ndi tizilombo angathandize, koma ngati vutolo likuoneka kuti ndi lalikulu jakisoni wa mankhwalawo angakhale wothandiza kwambiri. Mankhwala omwe amapezeka mosavuta ndi monga ampicillin ndiponso gentamicin ndipo amathandiza ngati mayi wabereka m'njira yachibadwa, ndipo mankhwala a clindamycin ndiponso a gentamicin angathandize ngati mayi wachitidwa opaleshoni pobereka. Koma kwa amayi omwe sakuchira ngakhale kuti apatsidwa thandizo la mankhwala oyenererera, ndi bwino kuwayeza kuti zidziwike ngati ali ndi chotupa chomwe chachita mafinya mkati mwawo.[1]

M'mayiko olemera, pafupifupi mayi m'modzi kapena awiri pa 100 alionse amadwala matenda oyambitsidwa ndi tizilombo tomwe talowa m'nthupi pa nthawi imene amabereka m'njira yachibadwa. Chiwerengerochi chimakwera n'kufika 5 mpaka 13 kwa amayi amene anali ndi mavuto ena pobereka mwachibadwa, komanso chimafika pa hafu ya amayi onse amene abereka mochita kupangidwa opaleshoni ndipo sanapatsidwe mankhwala othandiza thupi kulimbana ndi tizilombo.[1] Zimenezi zinachititsa imfa zokwana 24,000 m'chaka cha 2013, ndipo chiwerengerochi n'chotsika tikayerekezera ndi imfa zokwana 34,000 zomwe zinachitika mu 1990.[3] Nthawi yoyamba imene matenda oterewa anayamba kudziwika ndi kale kwambiri, zaka za m'ma 400 BCE, ndipo anatchulidwa m'zinthu zimene Hippocrates analemba.[4] Matenda amene amayamba mayi akangobereka kumene ankapha anthu ambiri kuyambira cha m'ma 1700 mpaka cha m'ma 1930, ndipo zinthu zinasintha pamene azachipatala anapeza mankhwala othandiza thupi kulimbana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa.[5] M'chaka cha 1847 m'dziko la Austria, Ignaz Semmelweiss anayamba kulimbikitsa anthu kuti azisamba m'manja ndi chlorine ndipo zimenezi zinathandiza kuti imfa zochitika chifukwa cha matenda zichepe kuchokera pa anthu 20 pa 100 alionse kufika pa anthu awiri okha pa anthu 100 alionse.[6][7]

Malifalensi[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "37". Williams obstetrics (24th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. 2014. pp. Chapter 37. ISBN 9780071798938. 
  2. Hiralal Konar (2014). DC Dutta's Textbook of Obstetrics. JP Medical Ltd. p. 432. ISBN 9789351520672. 
  3. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. PMID 25530442. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. 
  4. Walvekar, Vandana (2005). Manual of perinatal infections. New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. p. 153. ISBN 9788180614729. 
  5. Magner, Lois N. (1992). A history of medicine. New York: Dekker. pp. 257–258. ISBN 9780824786731. 
  6. Anderson, BL (April 2014). "Puerperal group A streptococcal infection: beyond Semmelweis.". Obstetrics and gynecology 123 (4): 874–82. PMID 24785617. 
  7. Ataman, AD; Vatanoglu-Lutz, EE; Yildirim, G (2013). "Medicine in stamps-Ignaz Semmelweis and Puerperal Fever.". Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association 14 (1): 35–9. PMID 24592068.