Mdulidwe wa amayi

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Mdulidwe wa amayi
photograph
Road sign near Kapchorwa, Uganda, where FGM is outlawed but still practised by the Pokot, Sabiny and Tepeth people.[1]
Description Partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons[2]
Areas practised Most common in 27 countries in sub-Saharan and north-east Africa, as well as in Yemen and Iraqi Kurdistan[3]
Numbers 133 million in those countries[4]
Age performed Weeks after birth to puberty and beyond[5]

'Mdulidwe wa amayi,''''''''''''' malinga ndi Bungwe Loona Zaumoyo Padziko Lonse, ndi "ndondomeko yodula kapena kuchotsa mbali ina kapena gawo lonse la kachiwalo komwe kamakhala kunja kwa maliseche a munthu wamkazi, kapena kuvulaza ngakhalenso kudula kumalo obisika a munthu wamkazi pa zifukwa zosagwirizana ndi zachipatala."[2] Mdulidwe wa amayi umachitika ngati mbali ya chikhalidwe pakati pa anthu amitundu yosiyanasiyana mu mayiko 27 a kumunsi kwa chipululu cha Sahara ndiponso Kumpoto Chakummawa kwa Africa, ndipo mwa apo ndi apo, mdulidwewu umachitikanso ku Asia, ku Middle East ndiponso m'mayiko ena pakati pa anthu amene angosamulira m'mayikowo.[6] Msinkhu umene munthu wamkazi amachitidwa mdulidwewu umasiyanasiyana, kuyambira pakangopita masiku ochepa mwanayo atabadwa kufika pa nthawi imene watha msinkhu; ndi pa hafu ya miyiko amene chiwerengero cha anthu ake chikudziwika bwino, atsikana ambiri amadulidwa asanakwanitse zaka 5.[7]

Mdulidwewu umachitika m'njira zosiyanasiyananso potengera mtundu ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu. Ena amachotsa gawo chabe kapena kachiwalo konse kooneka ngati nyemba ndiponsokhungu la pamwamba pa kachiwaloka; gawo chabe kapena kachiwalo konse kooneka ngati nyemba ndi milomo yamkati yakumaliseche; ndipo ena amafika pochotsa (milomo yonse yakumaliseche) kapena gawo lake la mkati ndi milomo yakunja ndi khungu lomwe limatseka pa khomo la njira yolowera chida cha abambo. Njira yomaliza ya mdulidweyi, yomwe Bungwe Loona Zaumoyo Padziko Lonse limaitcha Mtundu Wachitatu wa Mdulidwe wa Amayi, amasiya kabowo koti pazitulukira mkodzo ndi magazi pa nthawi yosamba, ndipo njira yolowera chida cha abambo imatsegulidwa kuti chidacho chizilowapo pa nthawi yogonana komanso kuti kuzitulukira mwana pa nthawi yobereka.[8] Mavuto okhudzana ndi umoyo amene amatsatirapo amatengera kwambiri njira imene inagwiritsidwa ntchito pochita mdulidwewo, ndipo ena mwa mavutowo ndi matenda osatherapo omwe amayamba chifukwa cha tizilombo tomwe talowa pachilondacho, ululu waukulu, matuza, kusathanso kutenga pakati, kukumana ndi mavuto ambiri pobereka, ndiponso kumwalira chifukwa chotaya magazi ambiri.[9]

Mdulidwewu umachitika pa zifukwa zosiyanasiyana, monga kuona amayi ngati anthu otsika, kufuna kupondereza amayi pa nkhani zogonana, miyamba yokhudza kuyeretsedwa, kudzisunga, ndiponso maonekedwe. Amayi akuluakulu ndi amene nthawi zambiri amalimbikitsa mdulidwewu komanso kudula atsikana ndipo amaona kuti munthu akadulidwe amalemekezedwa, komanso amachita izi poopa kuti ngati ana awo aakazi ndiponso adzukulu awo aakazi sadulidwa, ndiye kuti azisalidwa.[10] Amayi ndi atsikana opsa 130 miliyoni anachitidwa mdulidwe m'mayiko 29 amene mdulidwe wa amayi ndi wofala kwambiri.[4] Ndipo amayi ndi atsikana opitirira pa 8 miliyoni anachitidwa mdulidwe wochotseratu gawo la kunja kwa maliseche awo, ndipo ambiri amayi ndi atsikanawa ndi a m'mayiko a Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, ndi Sudan.[11]

Mdulidwe wa amayi ndi woletsedwa mwalamulo m'mayiko ambiri amene mdulidwewu umachitika, koma malamulowo satsatiridwa.[12] Kuyambira m'zaka za m'ma 1970, mayiko ndi mabungwe padziko lonse lapansi akhala akulimbikitsa anthu kuti asiye kuchita mdulidwe wa amayi, ndipo mu 2012, pa Msonkhano Waukulu wa Bungwe la United Nations, anagwirizana zoti kuchita mdulidwe wa amayi ndi kuphwana ufulu.[13] Komabe pali anthu ena amene akutsutsa zoti mdulidwewu uthetsedwe, makamaka akatswiri oona za chikhalidwe ndi mbiri ya anhu. Eric Silverman analemba kuti nkhani zokhudza mdulidwe wa amayi ndi zimene akatswiriwa akumazikonda kwambiri ndipo zimenezi zachititsa kuti anthu ena aziona kuti kuthetsa mchitidwewu ndi kuphwanya ufulu ndi chikhalidwe cha mitundu ina ya anthu, ena ayamba kuona kuti mchitidwewu ndi wovomerezeka ndipo munthu aliyense ali ndi ufulu wachibadwidwe wochita mdulidwewu.[14]

Malifalensi[edit | edit source]

  1. Masinde, Andrew. "FGM: Despite the ban, the monster still rears its ugly head in Uganda", New Vision, Uganda, 5 February 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Classification of female genital mutilation", World Health Organization, 2013 (hereafter WHO 2013).
  3. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Overview and Exploration of the Dynamics of Change", United Nations Children's Fund, July 2013 (hereafter UNICEF 2013), p. 2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: What Might the Future Hold?, New York: UNICEF, 22 July 2014 (hereafter UNICEF 2014), p. 3/6: "If nothing is done, the number of girls and women affected will grow from 133 million today to 325 million in 2050." Also see p. 6/6:

    "Data sources: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and other nationally representative surveys, 1997–2013. Population data are from: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2012 revision, CD-ROM edition, United Nations, New York, 2013.

    "Notes: Data presented in this brochure cover the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGM/C is concentrated and for which nationally representative data are available."

  5. UNICEF 2013, p. 50.
  6. UNICEF 2013, p. 2
  7. UNICEF 2013, pp. 47, 50, 183.
  8. WHO 2013; WHO 2008, p. 4
  9. Abdulcadira, Jasmine; Margairaz, C.; Boulvain, M; Irion, O. "Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting", Swiss Medical Weekly, 6(14), January 2011 (review).
  10. UNICEF 2013, p. 15: "There is a social obligation to conform to the practice and a widespread belief that if they [families] do not, they are likely to pay a price that could include social exclusion, criticism, ridicule, stigma or the inability to find their daughters suitable marriage partners."

    Nahid F. Toubia, Eiman Hussein Sharief, "Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?", International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 82(3), September 2003, pp. 251–261: "One of the great achievements of the past decade in the field of FGM is the shift in emphasis from the concern over the harmful physical effects it causes to understanding this act as a social phenomenon resulting from a gender definition of women's roles, in particular their sexual and reproductive roles. This shift in emphasis has helped redefine the issues from a clinical disease model (hence the terminology of eradication prevalent in the literature) to a problem resulting from the use of culture to protect social dominance over women's bodies by the patriarchal hierarchy. Understanding the operative mechanisms of patriarchal dominance must also include understanding how women, particularly older married women, are important keepers of that social hegemony." Template:PMID Template:Doi

  11. P. Stanley Yoder, Shane Khan, "Numbers of women circumcised in Africa: The Production of a Total", USAID, DHS Working Papers, No. 39, March 2008, pp. 13–14: "Infibulation is practiced largely in countries located in northeastern Africa: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. Survey data are available for Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Sudan alone accounts for about 3.5 million of the women. ... [T]he estimate of the total number of women infibulated in [Djibouti, Somalia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon and Tanzania, for women 15–49 years old] comes to 8,245,449, or just over eight million women." Also see Appendix B, Table 2 ("Types of FGC"), p. 19.

    UNICEF 2013, p. 182, identifies "sewn closed" as most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia for the 15–49 age group (a survey in 2000 in Sudan was not included in the figures), and for the daughters of that age group it is most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Niger and Somalia. See UNICEF statistical profiles: Djibouti (December 2013), Eritrea (July 2014), Somalia (December 2013).

    Also see Gerry Mackie, "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account", American Sociological Review, 61(6), December 1996 (pp. 999–1017), p. 1002: "Infibulation, the harshest practice, occurs contiguously in Egyptian Nubia, the Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, also known as Islamic Northeast Africa."

  12. For countries in which it is outlawed or restricted, UNICEF 2013, p. 8; for enforcement, UNFPA–UNICEF 2012, p. 48.
  13. "67/146. Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilation", United Nations General Assembly, adopted 20 December 2012.

    Emma Bonino, "Banning Female Genital Mutilation", The New York Times, 19 December 2012.

  14. Eric K. Silverman, "Anthropology and Circumcision", Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 2004 (pp. 419–445), pp. 420, 427.