Measles

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Measles
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
ICD/CIM-10B05 B05
ICD/CIM-9055 055
DiseasesDB7890
MedlinePlus001569

MChikuku, chomwenso chimadziwika kuti mayina akuti  morbilli, rubeola, ndiponso  red measles, ndi matenda amene anthu amapatsirana mosavuta ndipo amayambitsidwa ndi mavailasi achikuku.[1][2] Zizindikiro zoyambirira za matendawa ndi monga kutentha thupi, komwe kumatha kuposa pa 40 °C (104.0 °F), chifuwa, chimfine, ndiponso kufiira maso.[1][3] Pakapita masiku awiri kapena atatu kuchokera pamene zizindikiro zoyambirira zinayamba kuonekera, munthu yemwe ali ndi matendawa amatuluka tinsungu toyera mkamwa mwake tomwe timachedwa tinsungu ta Koplik. Pakapita masiku atatu mpaka 5 kuchokera pamene zizindikiro zoyambirira zinayamba, tizilonda tofiira tophwathalala timatuluka kumaso ndipo timafalikira m’thupi lonse.[3] Zizindikirozi kawirikawiri zimayamba pakatha masiku 10 mpaka 12 kuchokera pamene munthu anakhala pafupi ndi wodwala matendawa ndipo zizindikirozi zimatenga masiku 7 mpaka 10.[4][5] Anthu 30 mwa anthu 100 aliwonse omwe ali ndi matendawa amathanso kusonyeza zizindikiro zina zikuluzikulu monga kutsegula m'mimba, kuchita khungu, kutupa kwa ubongo, ndiponso chibayo.[4][6] Rubella (chikuku cha ku Germany) n'chosiyana ndi chikuku chotchedwa roseola.[7]

Matenda a chikuku amafala kudzera mu mpweya ndipo amafalikira mosavuta munthu yemwe ali ndi matendawa akakhosomola kapena kuyetsemula. Chikuku chingafalikirenso ngati munthu atakhudza malovu kapena mamina a munthu yemwe ali ndi matendawa.[4] Anthu 9 pa 10 aliwonse omwe sanalandire katemera wa chikuku ndipo akukhala ndi munthu yemwe ali ndi matendawa amatenga matendawa mosavuta. Munthu akhoza kupatsira ena matendawa kuyambira pa tsiku la 4 asanayambe kutuluka tizilonda mpaka pa tsiku la 4 atatuluka tizilonda.[6] Kawirikawiri munthu amatha kudwala matendawa kamodzi pamoyo wake.[4] Munthu yemwe akuganiza kuti ali ndi matendawa amalimbikitsidwa kuti azikayezetsa ndipo kuchita zimenezi kumathandiza a zaumoyo.[6]Katemera wa chikuku amathandiza kwambiri kuti munthu asadwale matendawa. Katemera wathandiza kuti anthu 75 pa 100 aliwonse omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa asamadwale ndipo zimenezi zachitika kuyambira m’chaka cha 2000 mpaka 2013 ndipo ana 85 pa 100 aliwonse padziko lonse alandira kale katemera wa matendawa. Padakali pano palibe mankhwala odziwika omwe amachiza matendawa. Komabe thandizo loperekedwa ndi achipatala komanso ukhondo zimathandiza kuti matendawa asafalikire.[4] Thandizoli lingaphatikizepo oral rehydration solution (madzi a mchere ndi shuga), zakudya zopatsa thanzi, ndiponso mankhwala othandiza kuletsa kutentha thupi ndiponso kuphwanya thupi.[4][5] Mankhwala olimbana ndi mabakiteriya angagwiritsidwenso ntchito ngati wodwalayo akusonyeza zizindikiro zina zoyambitsidwa ndi mabakiteriya, monga chibayo. M’mayiko omwe akukwera kumene, wodwala amalimbikitsidwanso kumwa mankhwala othandiza kuwonjezera vitamini A m'thupi.[4]

Chaka chilichonse, anthu pafupifupi 20 miliyoni amakhudzidwa ndi matenda a chikuku,[1] ndipo ambiri mwa anthu amenewa ndi a m’mayiko omwe akukwera kumene a mu Africa ndi Asia.[4] Chikuku chimapha anthu ochuluka zedi poyerekezera ndi matenda onse amene angapewedwe ndi katemera.[8] M’chaka cha 2013, anthu 96,000 anafa ndi matendawa ndipo mu 1990, anthu omwe anafa ndi matendawa analipo 545,000.[9] Mu 1980, zikuoneka kuti matendawa anapha anthu 2.6 miliyoni padziko lonse.[4] Ku United States kokha, chaka chilichonse anthu 3 kapena 4 miliyoni ankapezeka ndi matendawa chaka chilichonse dzikoli lisanayambe kupereka katemera.[6] Ambiri mwa anthu amene amadwala matendawa komanso kumwalira ndi matendawa ndi ana osakwanitsa zaka 5.[4] Masiku ano, 0.2 peresenti ya odwala matendawa ndi amene amakhala pa chiopsezo choti akhoza kumwalira,[6] ndipo chiwerengerochi chimafika pa 10 peresenti kwa odwala omwe alinso ndi vuto loperewera zakudya m'thupi.[4] Zikuoneka kuti matendawa amakhudzanso zinyama zina.[4]

Malifalensi[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Caserta, MT, ed. (September 2013). "Measles". Merck Manual Professional. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  2. "Measles (Red Measles, Rubeola)". http://www.health.gov.sk.ca/. Retrieved 10 February 2015. External link in |website= (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Measles (Rubeola) Signs and Symptoms". cdc.gov. November 3, 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 "Measles Fact sheet N°286". who.int. November 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Conn's Current Therapy 2015: Expert Consult - Online. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014. p. 153. ISBN 9780323319560.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Atkinson, William (2011). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 301–323. ISBN 9780983263135. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  7. Marx, John A. (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine : concepts and clinical practice (7th. ed.). Philadelphia: Mosby/Elsevier. p. 1541. ISBN 9780323054720.
  8. Kabra, SK; Lodhra, R (14 August 2013). "Antibiotics for preventing complications in children with measles". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8: CD001477. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001477.pub4. PMID 23943263.
  9. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442.