Nkhondo ya Russia-Ukraine

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Nkhondo ya Russo-Ukrainian[1][lower-alpha 1] ndi nkhondo yopitilira pakati pa Russia (pamodzi ndi magulu ankhondo odzipatula ogwirizana ndi Russia) ndi Ukraine. Idayamba mu February 2014 kutsatira Revolution ya Chiyukireniya ya Ulemu, ndipo poyambilira idayang'ana kwambiri za Crimea ndi madera ena a Donbas, omwe amadziwika kuti ndi gawo la Ukraine. Zaka zisanu ndi zitatu zoyambirira za mkanganowu zidaphatikizapo kutengedwa kwa Russia ku Crimea (2014) ndi nkhondo ku Donbas (2014-pano) pakati pa Ukraine ndi olekanitsa othandizidwa ndi Russia, komanso zochitika zapamadzi, cyberwarfare, ndi mikangano yandale. Kutsatira kukwera kwa asitikali aku Russia kumalire a Russia-Ukraine kuyambira kumapeto kwa 2021, mkanganowo udakula kwambiri pomwe dziko la Russia lidayambitsa kuwukira kwathunthu ku Ukraine pa 24 February 2022.

Pambuyo pa zionetsero za Euromaidan ndi kusintha komwe kunachititsa kuti Purezidenti wa Russia Viktor Yanukovych achotsedwe mu February 2014, zipolowe zomwe zimagwirizana ndi Russia zinayambika m'madera ena a Ukraine. Asilikali aku Russia opanda chizindikiro adalamulira malo abwino ndi zomangamanga kudera la Ukraine la Crimea, ndipo adalanda Nyumba Yamalamulo yaku Crimea. Russia idakonza referendum yodzudzulidwa kwambiri, yomwe zotsatira zake zidali kuti Crimea igwirizane ndi Russia. Kenako analanda Crimea. Mu Epulo 2014, ziwonetsero za magulu ochirikiza Russia m'chigawo cha Donbas ku Ukraine zidakula mpaka nkhondo yapakati pa asitikali aku Ukraine ndi olekanitsa omwe amathandizidwa ndi Russia akumayiko omwe amadzitcha okha a Donetsk ndi Luhansk.

Mu Ogasiti 2014, magalimoto ankhondo a ku Russia osazindikirika adawoloka malire ndi kulowa m'dziko la Donetsk. Nkhondo yosadziwika inayambika pakati pa asilikali a ku Ukraine kumbali imodzi, ndipo odzipatula anaphatikizana ndi asilikali a Russia kumbali inayo, ngakhale kuti Russia inayesa kubisala kukhudzidwa kwake. Nkhondoyo inakhala mkangano wosasunthika, ndipo kuyesa mobwerezabwereza kulephera kuthetsa nkhondo. Mu 2015, mapangano a Minsk II adasainidwa ndi Russia ndi Ukraine, koma mikangano yambiri idalepheretsa kuti ikwaniritsidwe. Pofika chaka cha 2019, 7% ya dziko la Ukraine idasankhidwa ndi boma la Ukraine kuti ndi madera omwe adalandidwa kwakanthawi, pomwe boma la Russia lidavomereza mosapita m'mbali kukhalapo kwa asitikali ake ku Ukraine.

Mu 2021 komanso koyambirira kwa 2022, panali gulu lalikulu lankhondo laku Russia kuzungulira malire a Ukraine. NATO idadzudzula Russia kuti ikukonzekera kuwukira, zomwe idakana. Purezidenti wa Russia Vladimir Putin adadzudzula kukulitsa kwa NATO ngati chiwopsezo ku dziko lake ndipo adalamula kuti dziko la Ukraine liletsedwe kulowa nawo mgwirizano wankhondo. Anafotokozanso maganizo osagwirizana ndi anthu a ku Russia, kukayikira ufulu wa Ukraine kukhalapo, ndipo adanena kuti Ukraine inalengedwa molakwika ndi Soviet Russia. Pa February 21, 2022, dziko la Russia linavomereza mwalamulo mayiko awiri odzipatula ku Donbas, ndipo adatumiza asilikali kumaderawa. Patapita masiku atatu, dziko la Russia linalanda dziko la Ukraine. Ambiri mwa mayiko adzudzula dziko la Russia chifukwa cha zomwe adachita pambuyo pa kusintha kwa dziko la Ukraine, akumaimba mlandu wophwanya malamulo apadziko lonse komanso kuphwanya ulamuliro wa Ukraine. Maiko ambiri adakhazikitsa zilango zachuma motsutsana ndi Russia, anthu aku Russia, kapena makampani, makamaka pambuyo pakuwukira kwa 2022.

Mbiri[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Kusamutsidwa kwa Crimea mu 1954, kunyumba kwa Black Sea Fleet, kuchokera ku Russian SFSR kupita ku SSR ya Ukraine kunabwera motsogoleredwa ndi Prime Minister wa Soviet Nikita Khrushchev. Kunkawonedwa ngati “chizindikiro” chosafunika kwenikweni, popeza kuti malipabuliki onsewo anali mbali ya Soviet Union ndipo anali kuyankha ku boma la Moscow. Kudzilamulira kwa Crimea kunakhazikitsidwanso pambuyo pa referendum mu 1991.

Ngakhale dziko lodziyimira pawokha kuyambira 1991, monga dziko lomwe kale linali Soviet Socialist Republic, Russia imawona Ukraine kukhala gawo lamphamvu zake. Iulian Chifu ndi olemba anzake akunena kuti, ponena za Ukraine, Russia ikutsatira ndondomeko yamakono ya Brezhnev Doctrine pa "ulamuliro wochepa", womwe umasonyeza kuti ulamuliro wa Ukraine sungakhale waukulu kuposa wa Pangano la Warsaw asanawonongeke. za gawo la Soviet la chikoka ndi Revolutions mu 1989. Izi zachokera pa mawu a atsogoleri aku Russia akuti zotheka kuphatikiza Ukraine mu NATO kungawononge chitetezo cha dziko la Russia.

Pambuyo pa kutha kwa Soviet Union mu 1991, Ukraine ndi Russia anakhalabe paubale wapamtima kwa zaka zambiri. Komabe panali mfundo zingapo zokakamira, makamaka zida zanyukiliya zaku Ukraine, zomwe Ukraine idavomera kuyisiya mu Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances (December 1994) pokhapokha ngati Russia ndi ena omwe adasaina apereke chitsimikiziro potsutsa ziwopsezo kapena kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu motsutsana ndi boma. chigawo umphumphu kapena ufulu ndale Ukraine. Mu 1999, dziko la Russia linasaina Charter for European Security, pomwe "inatsimikiziranso ufulu wadziko lililonse lomwe likuchita nawo ufulu wosankha kapena kusintha makonzedwe ake achitetezo, kuphatikiza mapangano a mgwirizano, pomwe akusintha".

Mfundo ina inali kugawanika kwa Black Sea Fleet. Ukraine idavomereza kubwereketsa malo angapo apanyanja kuphatikiza omwe ali ku Sevastopol, kuti zombo zankhondo zaku Russia za Black Sea zipitilize kukhala komweko pamodzi ndi asitikali apanyanja aku Ukraine. Kuyambira mu 1993, kupyolera mu 1990s ndi 2000s, Ukraine ndi Russia anachita mikangano yambiri gasi. Mu 2001, Ukraine, pamodzi ndi Georgia, Azerbaijan, ndi Moldova, adapanga gulu lotchedwa GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, lomwe dziko la Russia linawona ngati vuto lachindunji ku Commonwealth of Independent States, gulu lazamalonda lolamulidwa ndi Russia lomwe linakhazikitsidwa pambuyo pa kugwa. wa Soviet Union.

Russia idakwiyitsidwanso ndi Orange Revolution ya 2004, pomwe Viktor Yushchenko wa ku Europe adasankhidwa kukhala purezidenti m'malo mwa pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovych. Kuphatikiza apo, Ukraine idapitilizabe kukulitsa mgwirizano wake ndi NATO, kutumiza gulu lachitatu lalikulu kwambiri la asitikali ku Iraq ku 2004, ndikupatulira oteteza mtendere ku mishoni za NATO monga gulu la ISAF ku Afghanistan ndi KFOR ku Kosovo.

Yanukovych adasankhidwa mu 2010 ndipo Russia idawona kuti maubwenzi ambiri ndi Ukraine atha kukonzedwa. Izi zisanachitike, Ukraine inali isanakonzenso kubwereketsa kwa zida zankhondo ku Crimea, kutanthauza kuti asitikali aku Russia akuyenera kuchoka ku Crimea pofika chaka cha 2017. Yanukovych adasaina pangano latsopano ndikuwonjezera kuchuluka kwa asitikali ololedwa, komanso kulola asitikali kuti aziphunzitsa ku Crimea. Kerch peninsula. Ambiri ku Ukraine adawona kukulitsaku ngati kosagwirizana ndi malamulo, chifukwa malamulo a dziko la Ukraine amati palibe asitikali akunja omwe adzakhale ku Ukraine pambuyo poti mgwirizano wa Sevastopol utatha. Yulia Tymoshenko, wotsutsa wamkulu wa Yanukovych, adatsekeredwa m'ndende pazifukwa zomwe zimatchedwa kuzunzidwa kwa ndale ndi owonera mayiko, zomwe zinapangitsa kuti apitirize kusakhutira ndi boma. Mu November 2013, Viktor Yanukovych anakana kusaina pangano la mgwirizano ndi European Union, pangano lomwe lakhala likuchitika kwa zaka zingapo komanso lomwe a Yanukovych wochirikiza Russia, yemwe ankakonda kugwirizana kwambiri ndi Russia, adavomereza kale.

Mu Seputembala 2013, dziko la Russia linachenjeza kuti ngati dziko la Ukraine litalowa m’pangano lokonzekera malonda aulere ndi European Union, likhoza kukumana ndi mavuto azachuma komanso mwina kugwa kwa dzikolo. Sergey Glazyev, mlangizi wa pulezidenti wa Russia Vladimir Putin, adanena kuti "Akuluakulu a Chiyukireniya akulakwitsa kwambiri ngati akuganiza kuti zochita za Russia zidzakhala zandale m'zaka zingapo kuchokera pano. Izi sizidzachitika." Dziko la Russia linali litaika kale zoletsa kuitanitsa zinthu zina za ku Ukraine ndipo Glazyev sanawononge zilango zina ngati mgwirizanowo unasaina.

Glazyev analola mwayi wopatukana mayendedwe akuphukira mu Russian olankhula kum'mawa ndi kum'mwera kwa Ukraine. Adanenetsa kuti ngati Ukraine idasaina panganoli, iphwanya mgwirizano wamayiko awiriwa pazaubwenzi komanso ubale ndi Russia womwe umasokoneza malire a mayiko awiriwa. Dziko la Russia silikanatsimikiziranso kuti dziko la Ukraine lidzakhala dziko ndipo likhoza kulowererapo ngati madera ogwirizana ndi Russia achita apilo ku Russia.

Zolemba[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  1. Snyder, Timothy (2018). The Road to Unfreedom: Russia, Europe, America. New York: Tim Duggan Books. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-525-57447-7. Almost everyone lost the Russo-Ukrainian war: Russia, Ukraine, the EU, the United States. The only winner was China.; Mulford, Joshua P. (2016). "Non-State Actors in the Russo-Ukrainian War". Connections. 15 (2): 89–107. doi:10.11610/Connections.15.2.07. ISSN 1812-1098. JSTOR 26326442.; Shevko, Demian; Khrul, Kristina (2017). "Why the Conflict Between Russia and Ukraine Is a Hybrid Aggression Against the West and Nothing Else". In Gutsul, Nazarii; Khrul, Kristina (eds.). Multicultural Societies and their Threats: Real, Hybrid and Media Wars in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. Zürich: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 100. ISBN 978-3-643-90825-4.

Zolemba Zing'onozing'ono[Sinthani | sintha gwero]