Nkhope

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Mutu wa anatomy kutsogolo

Nkhope ili kutsogolo kwa mutu wa nyama yomwe ili ndi ziwalo zitatu za mutu, mphuno, ndi pakamwa, ndipo kudzera mwa ziweto zomwe zimayankhula zambiri za mtima wawo. Nkhope ndi yofunikira kwambiri kuti munthu adziŵe, ndipo kuwonongeka ngati kupweteka kapena kutukuka kumakhudza psyche molakwika.

Chikhalidwe[edit | sintha gwero]

Kutsogolo kwa mutu wa munthu kumatchedwa nkhope. Zimaphatikizapo madera angapo osiyana, zomwe zikuluzikuluzi ndizo:

  • Mphumi, yomwe imakhala ndi khungu pansi pa tsitsi, imadulidwa pambuyo pake ndi akachisi ndi pansi pake ndi ziso ndi makutu.
  • Maso akukhala mumtsinje ndi kutetezedwa ndi maso, ndi eyelashes.
  • Mphuno yosiyana ya umunthu, mphuno, ndi nsalu yamphongo.
  • Masaya omwe amavala maxilla ndi mandibula (kapena nsagwada), kumapeto kwake ndi khungu.
  • Pakamwa, ndi pakamwa pamlingo wopangidwa ndi philtrum, nthawi zina amawulula mano.
  • Maonekedwe a nkhope ndi ofunikira kuti anthu azizindikiranso komanso kuyankhulana. Minofu ya m'maso mwa anthu imalola kumveketsa.

Nkhope yokha ndiyo gawo lodziwika bwino la thupi la munthu ndipo mawu ake angasinthe pamene ubongo umalimbikitsidwa ndi mphamvu iliyonse ya umunthu, monga kukhudza, kutentha, kununkhira, kulawa, kumva, kuyenda, njala, kapena zowonetserako.

Zithunzi[edit | sintha gwero]

Nkhope ndi chinthu chomwe chimasiyanitsa kwambiri munthu. Madera apadera a ubongo waumunthu, monga fusiform nkhope malo (FFA), amathandiza kuzindikira nkhope; pamene izi zowonongeka, zingakhale zosatheka kuzindikira nkhope komanso achibale anu apamtima. Chitsanzo cha ziwalo zina, monga maso, kapena mbali zina zazo, zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mu chidziwitso cha chilengedwe kuti mudziwe anthu okhaokha.

Maonekedwe a nkhope amakhudzidwa ndi mafupa a chigaza, ndipo nkhope iliyonse imakhala yapadera kupyolera m'kusiyana kwa maonekedwe a mafupa a viscerocranium (ndi neurocranium). Mafupa omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pojambula nkhope ndiwo maxilla, mandible, fupa la nasal ndi zygomatic bone. Zofunikanso ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana yofewa, monga mafuta, tsitsi, ndi khungu (mtundu umene umasiyana nawo).

Kusintha kwa nkhope kumatenga nthawi, ndipo zomwe zimawonekera kwa ana kapena makanda, monga ma pod-pads odziwika bwino nthawi zina, zomwe zimathandiza mwanayo kuti azikhazikika pamasaya pamene akuyamwitsa. Ngakhale kuti mafuta amtunduwu amachepetsa kukula, kukula kwa mafupa kumawonjezeka ndi msinkhu pamene akukula ndikukula.

Maonekedwe a nkhope ndi chinthu chofunika kwambiri cha kukongola, makamaka kuonekera kwa nkhope.

Kusintha kwa nkhope kwa anthu, ndi Haeckel
Maonekedwe osiyanasiyana a nkhope monga caricatures, ndi William Hogarth
Nkhope ya mnyamata
Nkhope ya mkazi




Zolemba[edit | sintha gwero]