Pakati

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Pakati
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
ICD/CIM-10Z33 Z33
ICD/CIM-9650 650
DiseasesDB10545
MedlinePlus002398

Mawu akuti pakati, mimba kapena pathupi, akutanthauza nthawi imene mwana kapena ana ali m'mimba mwa mayi.[1] Kukhala ndi pakati pa ana angapo nthawi imodzi kumathanthauza kuti mayiyo angabereke mapasa.[2] Mayi angakhale ndi pakati ngati wagonana ndi mwamuna kapena ngati wathandizidwa ndi njira zina zachipatala. Nthawi zambiri pamadutsa milungu milungu 40 (miyezi 10) kuchokera pa nthawi yomaliza imene mayi anasamba kufika poti abereke mwana.[1][3] Tinganene kuti pamadutsa nthawi yokwana milungu 38 kuchokera pamene mbewu a abambo inakumana ndi mbewu ya amayi. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first 8 weeks following conception after which the term fetus is used until birth.[3] Zina mwa zizindikiro zoyambirira za pakati zingakhale kusasamba nthawi yosambayo ikakwana, kufewa kwa mabere, kuchita nseru ndi kusanza, kumva njala pafupipafupi, ndiponso kukodza pafupipafupi.[4] Mayi angafunikire kukayezetsa kuchipatala kuti atsimikizire ngati ali ndi pakati.[5]

Pali magawo atatu a pakati. Gawo loyamba likuyambira mlungu woyamba, pamene mbewu ya abambo yakumana ndi mbewu ya amayi, mpaka kufika mlungu wa 12. Mbewu ya abambo ikakumana ndi dzira la mayi mbewuyo imalowa m'dziralo ndipo dziralo limayenda m'kanjira kokhala ngati chubu ndipo likafika m'chiberekero, limamatirira kukhungu la mkati mwa chiberekerocho ndipo mwana amayamba kupangika mkati mwa dziralo komanso kathumba ka zakudya kamapangidwa.[1] Pa gawo loyamba la pakatili, zimakhala zosavuta kuti mwana wosabadwayo afe (imfa yochitika mwachibadwa ya mwana yosabadwayo).[6] Gawo lachiwiri la pakati limayambira pa mlungu wa 13 mpaka kufika pa mlungu wa 28. Chapakatikati pa gawo lachiwirili, mayi angayambe kumamva mwanayo akusunthasuntha. Milungu 28 ikangokwana, ana oposa 90 pa 100 aliwonse angathe kukhalabe ndi moyo ngati atapezeka kuti abadwa masiku asanakwane ndipo akusamaliridwa moyenerera ndi odziwa zachipatala. Gawo lachitatu la pakati limayamba pa mlungu wa 29 mpaka wa 40.[1]

Mayi wapakati akamadzisamalira bwino zimathandiza kuti adzabereke mwana wathanzi.[7] Mayiyo angafunikire kumamwa mavitamini owonjezera, kumapewa kugwiritsira ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo ndiponso zakumwa zoledzeretsa, kuchita masewra olimbitsa thupi nthawi zonse, kumayezetsa magazi, ndiponso kumapita kusikelo kawirikawiri.[7] Mavuto amene angakhalepo chifukwa cha pakati angakhale kuthamanga kwa magazi, matenda a shuga, kuchepa kwa magazi, ndiponso kuchita nseru kwambiri ndi kusanza.[8] Pakati patenge milungu 37 mpaka 41, ndipo ena amayi ena amabereka pakapita milungu 37 kapena 38, ena amabereka pakapita milungu 39 kapena 40, ndipo ena amabereka pakapita milungu 41. Mayi akabereka patapita milungu 41, ndiye kuti wabereka mochedwa. Ana amene amabadwa pasanathe milungu 37 kuchokera pamene mayi anatenga pakati ndi ana obadwa nthawi isanakwane ndipo amakhala pachiopsezo choti akhoza kudwala matenda a mu ubongo.[1] Azachipatala amalimbikitsa zoti mayi asachititsidwe kubereka kaya pomupatsa mankhwala ochititsa kuti abereke mwachangu kapena kumuchita opaleshoni ngati sipanathe milungu 39 kuchokera pamene anatenga pakati, pokhapokha ngati pali zifukwa zina zokhudzana ndi thanzi.[9]

M'chaka cha 2012 amayi pafupifupi 213 miliyoni anatenga pakati ndipo pa amayi amenewa, 190 miliyoni anali a m'mayiko omwe akukwera kumene ndipo 23 miliyoni anali a m'mayiko olemera. Zimenezi zikutanthauza kuti pa amayi 1,000 alionse a zaka zoyambira 15 mpaka 44, 133 anatenga pakati.[10] Amayi oyambira pa 10 mpaka 15 pa 100 alionse omwe akudziwika kuti ali ndi pakati amapititsa padera.[6] Mu 2013 amayi ndi ana okwana 293,000 anamwalira chifukwa cha mavuto okhudzana ndi pakati, ndipo chiwerengerochi n'chotsikirapo poyerekezera ndi imfa 293,000 zomwe zinachitika mu 1990 chifukwa cha mavuto omwewa. Imfazi zimachitika chifukwa cha mavuto omwe amachitika kawirikawiri monga kuta magazi ambiri pobereka, mavuto obwera chifukwa chochotsa mimba, kuthamanga kwambiri magazi, kuthamanga magazi, ndiponso mavuto ena a pobereka.[11] Padziko lonse, amayi 40 pa 100 alionse amene amatenga pakati amatenga pakatipo asanakonzekere. Ndipo hafu ya amayi amene amatenga pakati mosakonzekera amachotsa pakatipo.[10] Pa amayi a ku United States amene anatenga pakati mosakonzekera, 60 pa 100 alionse ankagwiritsa ntchito njira zakulera pa nthawi inayake pa mwezi umene anatenga pakatiwo.[12]

Malifalensi[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Pregnancy: Condition Information". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 2013-12-19. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  2. Wylie, Linda (2005). Essential anatomy and physiology in maternity care (Second Edition ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 172. ISBN 9780443100413. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Abman, Steven H. (2011). Fetal and neonatal physiology (4th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9781416034797. 
  4. "What are some common signs of pregnancy?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  5. "How do I know if I’m pregnant?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 2012-11-30. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Johns Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics (4 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012. p. 438. ISBN 9781451148015. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "What is prenatal care and why is it important?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  8. "What are some common complications of pregnancy?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  9. World Health Organization (November 2014). "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". who.int. Retrieved 6 Mar 2015. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sedgh, G; Singh, S; Hussain, R (September 2014). "Intended and unintended pregnancies worldwide in 2012 and recent trends.". Studies in family planning 45 (3): 301–14. PMID 25207494. 
  11. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. PMID 25530442. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. 
  12. K. Joseph Hurt, Matthew W. Guile, Jessica L. Bienstock, Harold E. Fox, Edward E. Wallach (eds.). The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 382. ISBN 9781605474335.