Paulo Mtumwi

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Paulo Kulemba Mapepala Ake, kujambula kwa Valentin de Boulogne, m'zaka za zana la 17

Paulo Mtumwi (Chilatini: Paulus; Chigiriki: Παῦλος, translit. Paũlus, Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 - c 64 kapena 67), amene amadziwika kuti Paulo Woyera komanso wodziwika ndi dzina lake lachiyuda lakuti Saulo wa ku Tariso (Chihebri: שאול התרסי, translit. Sha'ūl ha-Tarsī; Chigiriki: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, translit. Saũlos Tarseús),[1] anali mtumwi (ngakhale osati mmodzi wa Atumwi khumi ndi awiri) amene adaphunzitsa uthenga wa Khristu ku dziko la zana loyamba.[2]

Mayina[edit | edit source]

Anthu ambiri amaganiza kuti dzina la Saulo linasinthika pamene anakhala wotsatira wa Yesu Khristu, koma si choncho. Dzina lake lachiyuda linali "Saulo" (Chiheberi: שָׁאוּל, Modern Sha'ûl, Tiberian Šā'ûl, "anapempha kuti, apemphere, adakhokwe"), mwina pambuyo pa Mfumu Sauli, bwenzi la Benjamini ndi mfumu yoyamba ya Israeli. Malingana ndi Bukhu la Machitidwe, iye anali nzika ya Roma. Monga nzika ya Roma, adatchedwanso dzina lachilatini la "Paulo" -chi Greek: Παῦλος (Paulos), ndi Chilatini: Paulus. Zinali zofanana kuti Ayuda a nthawi imeneyo akhale ndi mayina awiri, Chiheberi chimodzi, Chilatini china kapena Chigiriki.

Yesu anamutcha "Saulo, Saulo" mu "chilankhulo cha Chihebri" m'buku la Machitidwe, pamene anaona masomphenya omwe adatsogolera kutembenuka pa njira yaku Damasiko. Pambuyo pake, m'masomphenya kwa Hananiya wa ku Damasiko, "Ambuye" anamutcha "Saulo wa ku Tariso". Hananiya atabwera kudzabwezeretsa nkhope yake, adamutcha "M'bale Saulo".

Mu Machitidwe 13: 9, Saulo amatchedwa "Paulo" kwa nthawi yoyamba pachilumba cha Kupro-patatha nthawi yomwe adatembenuka. Wolemba (Luka) akusonyeza kuti mayinawo anali osinthika: "Saulo, amenenso amatchedwa Paulo." Pambuyo pake amatchula kuti Paulo, mwachionekere Paulo ankakonda kuchokera pamene amatchedwa Paulo m'mabuku ena onse a m'Baibulo kumene adatchulidwa, kuphatikizapo zomwe adalemba. Kulemba dzina lake lachiroma kunali kofanana ndi kachitidwe kaumishonale kwa Paulo. Njira yake inali kuyika anthu omasuka ndi kuwafikira ndi uthenga wake m'chinenero ndi kalembedwe zomwe anganene, monga 1 Akorinto 9: 19-23.


Nkhani ya m'Baibulo[edit | edit source]

Dzina la Paulo linali poyamba Saulo (osati kuti asokonezeke ndi Mfumu Saulo kuchokera m'mabuku a Samueli mu Chipangano Chakale). Anakulira kuphunzira malamulo onse achiyuda ndi njira zachi Greek zofotokozera zinthu. Ife tikuyamba kudziwonekera kwa Saulo mu Baibulo pafupi ndi mapeto a Machitidwe 7. Mpingo wachikhristu unayamba ndi kuuka ndi kukwera kwa Yesu. Saulo anali kutsutsana kwambiri ndi izi, ndipo anali wokondwa pamene ankayang'ana Woyera Stefano, wofera chikhulupiriro choyamba wa Yesu, akuphedwa ndi kumuponya miyala atapereka mawu omwe anakwiya ndi khoti lachiyuda. Anagwira ntchito pa Boma lachiroma ndipo anathandiza kutsogolera kumangidwa ndi kuphedwa kwa akhristu ambiri mu Israeli komanso pafupi.

Pambuyo pake, Saulo anauzidwa kuti apite ku Damasiko kukapeza ndi kubwezeretsanso Akhristu kumeneko kuti adzalangidwe. Ali panjira, Mulungu adatsika kumwamba ndipo analankhula ndi Saulo. Baibulo limalongosola za zomwe zinachitika monga izi:

Paulendo wake, Saulo anapita ku Damasiko. Mwadzidzidzi kuwala kochokera Kumwamba kunaunikira kuzungulira iye. Iye adagwa pansi. Iye anamva liwu likuyankhula kwa iye.

"Saulo, Saulo!" liwu linati. "Nchifukwa chiyani iwe ukunditsutsa ine?"

"Ndiwe yani, Ambuye?" Saulo anafunsa.

"Ndine Yesu," adayankha. "Ndine amene ukumutsutsa. + Tsopano nyamuka, upite kumzinda. + Udzauzidwa zimene uyenera kuchita." +

Amuna akuyenda ndi Saulo adayima pamenepo. Sankatha kulankhula. Iwo anali atamva phokosolo. Koma iwo sanamuwone aliyense. Saulo adadzuka pansi. Anatsegula maso ake, koma sanathe kuona. Choncho anam'gwira dzanja ku Damasiko. Kwa masiku atatu anali wakhungu. Iye sanadye kapena kumwa kanthu. Machitidwe 9: 3-9, NIRV

Moyo wakuubwana[edit | edit source]

Zomwe zikuluzikulu ziwiri zomwe timapeza poyambirira pa ntchito ya Paulo ndi Bukhu la Machitidwe komanso zolemba za Paulo za makalata oyambirira kumidzi ya mpingo. Paulo ayenera kuti anabadwira pakati pa zaka za 5 BC ndi 5 AD. Bukhu la Machitidwe limasonyeza kuti Paulo anali mbadwa ya chi Roma, koma Helmut Koester amatsutsa ndi umboni umene ulipo.[3][Acts 16:37][Acts 22:25–29]

Anachokera ku banja lachiyuda lodzipereka mumzinda wa Tarsus, limodzi mwa malo akuluakulu amalonda ogombe la Mediterranean. Iyo idakhalapo zaka mazana angapo iye asanabadwe. Iyo inali yotchuka kwa yunivesite yake. Panthawi ya Alexander Wamkulu, yemwe adamwalira mu 323 BC, Tariso ndiwo mzinda wokhala ndi mphamvu kwambiri ku Asia Minor.[4] Paulo anadzitcha yekha "wochokera kwa Israeli, wa fuko la Benjamini, Mhebri wa Ahebri; ponena za lamulo, Mfarisi".[Phil. 3:5]

Baibulo silinena zambiri za banja la Paulo. Mwana wa mchimwene wa Paulo, mwana wa mlongo wake, akutchulidwa mu Acts 23:16. Machitidwe amatsindiranso Paulo ponena za atate ake kuti iye, Paulo, anali "Mfarisi, mwana wa Mfarisi" (Acts 23:6). Mu Romans 16:7 akunena kuti achibale ake, Andronicus ndi Yunia, anali akhristu asanakhalepo ndipo anali otchuka pakati pa atumwi.

Kutembenuka[edit | edit source]

Saulo atafika ku Damasiko, adatengedwera kwa Anania, mmodzi wa ophunzira a Yesu, kumene adamuwona ndikubatizidwa monga Mkhristu. Iye anakhala zaka zitatu zotsatira ndikuphunzira malemba Achiyuda kachiwiri kuti apeze tsatanetsatane za ziphunzitso zachikristu. Zimene anakumana nazo zinasintha maganizo ake. Anasintha dzina lake kukhala Paulo ndipo adapatulira moyo wake kuti atumikire Yesu Khristu. Anagwiritsa ntchito maphunziro ake oyambirira kufotokozera chikhulupiriro chake chatsopano kwa anthu ena komanso kukambirana ndi anthu omwe anali ndi zikhulupiriro zina.

Anayenda kuzungulira Ufumu wa Roma, kuphunzitsa ena za Chikhristu, ndipo analemba makalata mmbuyo ndi mtsogolo ndi mipingo yomwe iye anathandiza kuti ayambe. Makalata ali ndi zigawo zambiri zofunikira za chiphunzitso chachikristu ndipo kuyambira pano akhala mbali ya Chipangano Chatsopano cha Baibulo, kubwera pakati pa Machitidwe a Atumwi ndi Makalata Akuluakulu. Sitikudziwika ngati Paulo analembadi makalata onsewa, kapena ngati anthu ena akanatha kulemba makalata ake. Chimodzi mwa makalata amenewa amawerengedwa pa Misa ngati yachiwiri mwa mawerengedwe awiri omwe amadza patsogolo pa Uthenga Wabwino.

Ngakhale kuti Baibulo silinena momwe Paulo adafera, zinauzidwa kuti Paulo anaphedwa ndi lamulo la mfumu Nero ku Roma, mu 67 AD. Iye anali ndi ufulu wa nzika ya Roma, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti iye akanakhoza kuphedwa pokhala atadula mutu wake ndi lupanga, osati kupachikidwa.

Posintha-kutembenuka[edit | edit source]

Ndipo pomwepo adalengeza Yesu m'masunagoge, nanena, Iye ndiye Mwana wa Mulungu. Ndipo onse amene anamva Iye adazizwa, nati, Si uyu kodi amene adaipitsa dzina la Yerusalemu pa iwo amene adayitana dzina ili? Ndipo sanadze kuno cifukwa ca ici, kuti awabweretse omangidwa kwa ansembe akuru? Koma Saulo adachulukira koposa, napasula Ayuda akukhala ku Damasiko mwakutsimikizira kuti Yesu anali Khristu.[5]

M'mavesi otsegulira a Aroma 1, Paulo akupereka litanyamuliro wa udindo wake wautumwi wolalikira pakati pa amitundu ndi zikhulupiriro zake zotsatila za Khristu woukitsidwayo.

  • Paulo adadzifotokozera yekha
    • mtumiki wa Yesu Khristu;
    • pokhala ndi zochitika zosayembekezereka, mwadzidzidzi, zochititsa mantha, chifukwa cha chisomo chonse  - osati chipatso cha malingaliro ake kapena malingaliro; [Gal. 1:12–15] [1 Cor. 15:10]
  • atawona Khristu monga anachitira atumwi ena pamene Khristu adawonekera kwa iye monga adawonekera kwa Petro,[1 Cor. 15:8] kwa Yakobo, kwa khumi ndi awiriwo, atauka kwa akufa;[1 Cor. 9:1]
  • akudwala matenda olepheretsa kukhala ndi umoyo umene amauza ngati "munga m'thupi";[2 Cor. 12:7]
  • wotchedwa mtumwi;
  • Kulekanitsidwa kwa Uthenga Wabwino wa Mulungu.
  • Paulo adalongosola kuti Yesu ali
    • pokhala analonjezedwa ndi Mulungu kudzera mwa aneneri ake m'Malemba Opatulika;
    • kukhala mesiya woona ndi Mwana wa Mulungu;
    • kukhala ndi chikhalidwe chochokera kwa Davide ("monga mwa thupi");
    • atatsimikiziridwa kukhala Mwana wa Mulungu mu mphamvu monga mwa Mzimu wa chiyero mwa kuukitsidwa kwake kwa akufa;
    • kukhala Yesu Khristu Ambuye wathu;[Rom. 1:3]
    • Amene tinalandira kudzera mwa chisomo ndi ulemelero kuti tibweretse kumvera kwa chikhulupiriro chifukwa cha dzina lake pakati pa amitundu onse, "kuphatikizapo inu omwe mwaitanidwira kukhala a Yesu Khristu".
  • Yesu
    • amakhala kumwamba;
    • ndi Mwana wa Mulungu;
    • posachedwa abwerere.
  • Mtanda
  • Chilamulo
    • Iye tsopano anakhulupirira kuti lamulo limangowonetsa kukula kwa ukapolo wa anthu ku mphamvu ya uchi & nbsp; - Mphamvu yomwe iyenera kuthyoledwa ndi Khristu.[Rom. 3:20b] [7:7–12]
  • Amitundu
    • adakhulupirira kuti Amitundu anali kunja kwa pangano limene Mulungu adapanga ndi Israeli;
    • Iye tsopano anakhulupirira Amitundu ndi Ayuda anali ogwirizana monga anthu a Mulungu mwa Khristu Yesu.[Gal. 3:28]
  • Mdulidwe
    • adakhulupirira kuti mdulidwe ndiwo mwambo umene amuna adakhala mbali ya Israeli, malo amodzi mwa anthu osankhidwa a Mulungu;[Phil. 3:3–5]
    • Iye tsopano anakhulupirira kuti kusadulidwa kapena kusadulidwa kumatanthauza chirichonse, koma kuti cholengedwa chatsopano ndicho chofunikira pamaso pa Mulungu,[Gal. 6:15] ndikuti chilengedwe chatsopano ndi ntchito ya Khristu mu moyo wa okhulupirira, kuwapanga kukhala gawo la mpingo, gulu lophatikizana la Ayuda ndi Amitundu adagwirizanitsidwa ndi Mulungu kudzera mu chikhulupiriro.[Rom. 6:4]
  • Kuzunzidwa
    • adakhulupirira kuti chizunzo chake chinali chiwonetsero cha changu chake pa chipembedzo chake;
    • Iye tsopano adakhulupirira chidani cha Chiyuda kuti tchalitchi chinali chitsutso chotsutsa chomwe chingawathandize mkwiyo wa Mulungu; iye ankakhulupirira kuti iye anaimitsidwa ndi Khristu pamene ukali wake unali pautali wake; Anali kuzunza mpingo, "mwachangu" ndipo adalandira chifundo chifukwa "adachita mosadziwa m'kusakhulupirira".
  • Masiku Otsiriza
    • adakhulupirira kuti Mesiya wa Mulungu adzathetsa ukalamba woipa ndikuyambitsa nyengo yatsopano yolungama;
    • Iye adakhulupirira tsopano kuti izi zidzachitika muzigawo zomwe zinayamba ndi chiukitsiro cha Yesu, koma ukalamba udzapitirira kufikira Yesu atabweranso.

Paulo ndi wofunikira kwambiri pa zaumulungu komanso zozizwitsa za zokhudzana ndi khalidwe labwino kapena labwino la Ayuda pamene akutsindika molimba mtima lingaliro la malo apadera kwa ana a Israeli.[9-11]

Pali mikangano yokhudza ngati Paulo amadzimva yekha ngati atumizidwa kutenga uthenga kwa amitundu panthawi yomwe adatembenuka.[6]

Imfa[edit | edit source]

Tsiku la imfa ya Paulo likukhulupiliridwa kuti lachitika pambuyo pa Moto Waukulu wa Roma mu Julai 64, koma chaka chatha chisanafike ku ulamuliro wa Nero, mu 68.[7]

Ikulongosola muzinthu zambiri:

  • I Clement (95-96 AD) akusonyeza kuti onse awiri Paulo ndi Peter anaphedwa.[8]
  • Pali mwambo wakale womwe umapezeka mulemba la Ignati, mwinamwake pozungulira 110 AD, kuti Paulo anaphedwa.[9]
  • Dionysius wa ku Korinto, kalata yopita kwa Aroma (166-174 AD), adanena kuti Paulo ndi Peter anaphedwa ku Italy.[10] Eusebius amatchulanso ndime ya Dionysius.[11]
  • Buku la Machitidwe a Paulo, lopatulika lomwe linalembedwa pafupifupi 160, limafotokoza za kuphedwa kwa Paulo. Malinga ndi Machitidwe a Paulo, Nero anadzudzula Paulo kuti afe pakuponyedwa pansi.[12]
  • Tertullian m'Buku Lotsutsa Otsutsa (200 AD) akulemba kuti Paulo anali ndi imfa yofanana ndi ya Yohane Mbatizi, amene adadula mutu.[13]
  • Eusebius wa ku Caesarea mu Church History (320 AD) akuchitira umboni kuti Paulo adadula mutu mu Roma ndipo Petro adapachikidwa. Iye analemba kuti manda a atumwi awiriwa, ndi zolemba zawo, analipo mu nthawi yake; ndipo akugwira mawu monga ulamuliro wake munthu woyera dzina lake Caius.[14]

Zolemba[edit | edit source]

  1. ""Saint Paul, the Apostle." Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition". global.britannica.com. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 
  2. Powell, Mark A. Introducing the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. 2009. ISBN 978-0-8010-2868-7
  3. Koester, Helmut (2000). Introduction to the New Testament (2 ed.). New York: de Gruyter. p. 107. ISBN 3110149702. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  4. Wright, G. Ernest, Great People of the Bible and How They Lived, (Pleasantville, New York: The Reader's Digest Association, Inc., 1974).
  5. "Bible Gateway passage: Acts 9:20-22 - New Revised Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2018-09-06. 
  6. Horrell, David G (2006). An Introduction to the Study of Paul. New York: T&T Clark. p. 30. ISBN 0-567-04083-6. 
  7. Brown, Raymond E. (1997) An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 436. Doubleday, Anchor Bible Reference Library,
  8. McDowell, Sean (2016-03-09). The Fate of the Apostles. pp. 67–70. ISBN 9781317031901. 
  9. Ignatius of Antioch, Letter to the Ephesians, Chapter XII
  10. of Corinth, Dionysius. "Fragments from a Letter to the Roman Church Chapter III". earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  "Therefore you also have by such admonition joined in close union the churches that were planted by Peter and Paul, that of the Romans and that of the Corinthians: for both of them went to our Corinth, and taught us in the same way as they taught you when they went to Italy; and having taught you, they suffered martyrdom at the same time."
  11. Eusebius of Caesarea. "Church History Book II Chapter 25:8". newadvent.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  12. James, Montague Rhodes (1924). "The Acts of Paul". The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  13. Quintus Septimius Florens, Tertullian. "Prescription Against Heretics Chapter XXXVI". ccel.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  "Since, moreover, you are close upon Italy, you have Rome, from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority (of apostles themselves). How happy is its church, on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood; where Peter endures a passion like his Lord's; where Paul wins his crown in a death like John's[the Baptist]; where the Apostle John was first plunged, unhurt, into boiling oil, and thence remitted to his island-exile."
  14. of Caesarea, Eusebius. "Church History Book II Chapter 25:5–6". newadvent.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 

Malemba[edit | edit source]

  • Aulén, Gustaf. Christus Victor (SPCK 1931)
  • Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible Series, 1997. ISBN 0-385-24767-2
  • Brown, Raymond E. The Church the Apostles left behind (Chapman 1984)
  • Bruce, F.F. "Is the Paul of Acts the Real Paul?" Bulletin John Rylands Library 58 (1976) 283–305
  • Bruce, F.F., Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free (ISBN 0-8028-4778-1)
  • Carson, D.A.;Moo, D.J. An Introduction to the New Testament ISBN 978-1-84474-089-5
  • Conzelmann, Hans, The Acts of the Apostles – A Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles (Augsburg Fortress 1987)
  • Davies, W.D. Paul and Rabbinic Judaism: Some Rabbinic Elements in Pauline Theology. S.P.C.K., 3rd ed., 1970. ISBN 0-281-02449-9
  • Davies, W.D. "The Apostolic Age and the Life of Paul" in Matthew Black, ed. Peake's Commentary on the Bible. London: T. Nelson, 1962. ISBN 0-8407-5019-6
  • Dunn, James D.G., Jesus, Paul, and the Gospels (Grand Rapids (MI), Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2011)
  • Dunn, James D.G., Jesus, Paul and the Law Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1990. ISBN 0-664-25095-5
  • Hanson, Anthony T. Studies in Paul's Technique and Theology. Eerdmans, 1974. ISBN 0-8028-3452-3
  • Holzbach, Mathis Christian, Die textpragmat. Bedeutung d. Kündereinsetzungen d. Simon Petrus u.d. Saulus Paulus im lukan. Doppelwerk, in: Jesus als Bote d. Heils. Stuttgart 2008, 166–72.
  • Horrell, David G. "An Introduction to the Study of Paul". T&T Clark Approaches to Biblical Studies. 2nd edition. London: T&T Clark, 2006
  • Irenaeus, Against Heresies
  • Kim, Yung Suk. A Theological Introduction to Paul's Letters. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 2011. ISBN 978-1-60899-793-0
  • Langton, Daniel R. (2010). The Apostle Paul in the Jewish Imagination. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51740-9. 
  • Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. ISBN 0-06-015582-5
  • MacDonald, Dennis Ronald, 1983. The Legend and the Apostle: The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0664244644
  • McRay, John (2007). Paul: His Life and Teaching. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. ISBN 978-1441205742. 
  • Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Jesus and Paul: Parallel lives (Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 2007) ISBN 0-8146-5173-9
  • Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Paul the Letter-Writer: His World, His Options, His Skills (Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1995) ISBN 0-8146-5845-8
  • Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Paul: A Critical Life (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996) ISBN 0-19-826749-5
  • Ogg, George. "Chronology of the New Testament". Matthew Black, ed. Peake's Commentary on the Bible. Nelson, 1962. ISBN 0-8407-5019-6
  • Rashdall, Hastings, The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology (1919)
  • Ruef, John, Paul's First letter to Corinth (Penguin 1971)
  • Sanders, E. P., Paul and Palestinian Judaism (1977)
  • Segal, Alan F. Paul, the Convert, (New Haven/London, Yale University Press, 1990) ISBN 0-300-04527-1
  • Segal, Alan F., "Paul, the Convert and Apostle" in Rebecca's Children: Judaism and Christianity in the Roman World (Harvard University Press 1986) ISBN 978-0674750760
  • Spong, John Shelby, "The Man From Tarsus", in Rescuing the Bible From Fundamentalism, reprint ed. (New York: HarperCollins, 1992).
  • Waardenburg, Jacques, ed. (1999). Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions: A Historical Survey. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-535576-5. 
  • White, L. Michael (2007). From Jesus to Christianity. San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-081610-4. 

Zogwirizana zakunja[edit | edit source]