Rhodesia

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Rhodesia (pambuyo pa Cecil Rhodes ) ndi dzina lakale la dziko la Africa ku Zimbabwe . M'mbuyomu, dzina loti "Rhodesia" limagwiritsidwa ntchito kutanthauza dera lalikulu lomwe likufanana ndi Zimbabwe ( Southern Rhodesia ) ndi Zambia ( Northern Rhodesia ).

Mu 1953 , poyang'anizana ndi ufulu wodziyimira pawokha m'maiko aku Africa, United Kingdom idayesa kupanga Federation of Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland , yomwe inali ndi mayiko aku Zimbabwe , Zambia , ndi Malawi omwe panthawiyo amatchedwa Southern Rhodesia , Northern Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland motsatira.

Chitaganya cha Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland anali kusungunuka pa January 1 , 1964 pa ufulu wa Malawi ndi Zambia . Northern Rhodesia itapatsidwa ufulu ndi Britain mu 1964 , idasintha dzina kukhala Zambia. Southern Rhodesia idakhalabe koloni yaku Britain ndipo idayamba kudziwika kuti Rhodesia.

Boma la Britain lidatengera mfundo yotchedwa NIBMAR (No Independence Before Majority African Rule), modabwitsa boma loyera laling'ono la Rhodesian Front (RF) , lotsogozedwa ndi Ian Smith . Pa Novembala 11 , 1965 , a Smith adalengeza kuti dziko lodziyimira palokha popanda ulamuliro waku Britain, mu zomwe zidadziwika kuti Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) ndi Boma la Rhodesia. Izi zidatsutsidwa padziko lonse lapansi ndipo Rhodesia idalangidwa pamilandu yapadziko lonse kuyambira 1965 mpaka ufulu monga Zimbabwe mu 1980.

Ntchito yayitali yotsutsana ndi ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) ndi ZAPU (Zimbabwe African People's Union) yolimbana ndi ulamuliro wa Smith idatsata UDI. ZANU , panthawiyo, anali a Marxist-socialist African nationalist liberation movement, yomwe idatsogoleredwa ndi Robert Mugabe . ZAPU analinso gulu lomenyera ufulu wachifalansa la Marxist-Socialist, lotsogozedwa ndi Joshua Nkomo(ZAPU nthawi zambiri anthu aku Britain ndi azungu amawona kuti ndiwopepuka kuposa ZANU). Boma la Rhodesia lidalimbana ndikulephera kuyang'anira kampeni yazankhondo ya ZANU ndi ZAPU, yomwe idakhala nkhondo yankhondo yodzaza dziko lonselo. Izi zidayamba kudziwika kuti "Bush War" ndi omwe anali kumbali ya boma loyang'aniridwa ndi azungu komanso "Chimurenga" (nkhondo yomenyera ufulu) ndi omwe amathandizira gulu ladziko lachi Africa.

Chifukwa chakukhazikika kwamgwirizano kapena mgwirizano pakati pa boma la Rhodesia ndi zipani zochepa zaku Africa, zomwe sizinatengeredwe chifukwa chake sizinachite nawo nkhondo, zisankho zidachitika mu Epulo 1979, pomwe UANC (United African National Council) Chipanichi chidapambana, ndipo mtsogoleri wawo, a Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa , bishopu wa United Methodist Church , adakhala nduna yayikulu mdzikolo. Pakadali pano dzina ladzikolo lidasinthidwa kukhala Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Pomwe zisankhozi zimafotokozedwa ndi boma la Rhodesia ngati zopanda tsankho komanso demokalase, sizinaphatikizepo zipani ziwiri zodziwika bwino zomwe zili mgulu lankhondo lachi Africa, ZANU ndi ZAPU. Boma la Bishop Muzorewa komanso dzina latsopanoli ku Zimbabwe Rhodesia sizinalandiridwe konsekonse. Anthu apadziko lonse lapansi adazindikira kuti kuthetsa nkhondo ku Rhodesia kuyenera kuphatikizanso ZANU ya Mugabe ndi ZAPU ya Nkomo kuti zitheke chifukwa ziwirizi zinali zofunikira kwambiri pankhondo. Kuzindikira kumeneku ndiye chifukwa chake Boma la Britain lidalimbikitsidwa ndi mayiko akunja kuti alowererepo.

Zotsatira zakusiyidwa kwa zipani zazikulu zadziko la Afican, ZANU ndi ZAPU, "uchigawenga" malinga ndi boma la Rhodesia komanso "nkhondo yomenyera ufulu" malinga ndi ZANU ndi ZAPU, zidapitilira. Boma la Britain (lotsogozedwa ndi a Margaret Thatcher omwe asankhidwa posachedwa ) analowereranso pofuna kukakamiza kukhazikika pakati pa boma losankhidwa ndi omenyera ufulu wawo.

Pansi pa mgwirizano wamtenderewu, Britain idayambiranso kulamulira kwakanthawi kochepa mu 1980 kenako idapatsa ufulu ku Zimbabwe Rhodesia mchaka chomwecho, pomwe zisankho zoyambirira zamitundu yonse zidachitika pomwe panali ziwopsezo zambiri komanso ziwawa zomwe zidachitika kutuluka mbali zonse ziwiri zankhondo. Mosadabwitsa, a Marxist Robert Mugabe ndi ZANU adapambana zisankhozi. Pa Epulo 18th, 1980, dzikolo lidayamba kudziyimira palokha ngati Republic of Zimbabwe , ndipo likulu lake, Salisbury adasinthidwa kukhala Harare , zaka ziwiri pambuyo pake.

Robert Mugabe walamulira dzikoli mpaka lero, woyamba ngati Prime Minister, komanso kuyambira 1988 ngati Purezidenti. Posachedwa, a Mugabe adatsutsidwa kwambiri (ndipo mawu ngati "wolamulira mwankhanza" ndi "watsankho" akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kumufotokozera) chifukwa cha 1) momwe adayankhira poyankha funso lakafukufuku wokhudza malo aku Zimbabwe , 2) ziwawa ndi kuwopseza zomwe zadziwika pachisankho cha 2000, ndi 3) kusalolera komwe boma lake latsutsana ndi atolankhani.