Schizophrenia

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Template:Infobox medical condition (new) Kudwala ndi maganizo kuli m'gulu la matenda a maganizo ndipo munthu yemwe ali ndi matendawa amayamba kusonyeza khalidwe lachilendo ndiponso amavutika kuti aone zinthu m’njira yoyenerera.[1] Zizindikiro zofala za matendawa ndi monga kukhulupirira zinthu zabodza, kumva zinthu zimene anthu ena sakuzimva, kusakonda kuchita zinthu ndi anthu ena,kusasonyeza munthu akusangalala kapena sakusangalala ndiponso kusakhala ndiponso kusakhala ndi chidwi chofuna kuchita zinthu zina.[1][2] Anthu amene amadwala ndi maganizo kawirikawiri amakhalanso ndi matenda ena okhudzana ndi maganizo monga nkhawa, kuvutika maganizo, kapenanso chizolowezi chogwiritsira ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo.[3] Zizindikiro za matendawa zimayamba kuonekera mwa pang’onopang’ono, ndipo nthawi zambiri munthu amayamba kudwala matendawa ali wachinyamata mpaka amakula nawo.[2][4]

Zina mwa zinthu zimene zimayambitsa matendawa ndi zochitika pamoyo ndiponso zoyamwira.[5] Zochitika pamoyo wa munthu monga kukulira mumzinda, kusuta chamba uli mwana, matenda ena, msinkhu wa makolo komanso kuperewera kwa zakudya m’thupi pa nthawi imene mayi ali woyembekezera.[5][6] Ngati vutoli lili loyamwira kuchokera kumtundu umene munthu wabadwira, zizindikiro zake zingaonekerenso mwa anthu ena a kumtunduwo.[7] Kuona zochita za munthu, zimene wakumana nazo pamoyo wake, ndiponso malipoti a ena omwe akumudziwa bwino munthuyo.[4] Muyenera kuganiziranso chikhalidwe cha munthuyo ngati vutoli lili la kumtundu.[4] Pofika m'chaka cha 2013 azachipatala anali asanapeze njira yodalirika yoyezera matendawa.[4] Kudwala maganizo sikutanthauza "kusintha khalidwe mwadzidzidzi" ayi kapena kusakonda kuchita zinthu ndi anthu, khalidwe lomwe kawirikawiri anthu ochuluka salimvetsa bwino.[8]

Mankhwala odalirika kwambiri a matendawa ndi antipsychotic, pamodzi ndi kulandira uphungungu, kuphunzira ntchito komanso kukhala ndi ndondomeko yothandiza kuthana ndi vutoli.[1][5] Sizikudziwika bwinobwino ngati mtundu woyambirira wa mankhwala a oyambirira kapena mtundu mtundu wachiwiri ndiwo umathandiza kwambiri.[9] Kwa anthu amene zikuonekeratu kuti mankhwala a antipsychotics sakuthandiza, angayese mankhwala a clozapine.[5] Munthu yemwe akuoneka kuti akudwala kwambiri matendawa angathe kugonekedwa m'chipatala ngakhale kuti mwiniwakeyo sakugwirizana nazo, ngati zikuoneka kuti vutoli lakula kwambiri, ndipo masiku ano anthu omwe ali ndi vutoli sakumakhalitsa m’chipatala komanso sakumagonekedwamo kawirikawiri.[10]

Pafupifupi 0.3 mpaka 0.7 peresenti ya anthu onse amadwala kapena anadwalapo matenda a maganizo pa nthawi inayake m'moyo wawo.[11] M'chaka cha 2013, padziko lonse pansi anthu pafupifupi 23.6 miliyoni amadwala matendawa.[12] Amuna ndi amene amadwala kwambiri matendawa poyerekezera ndi akazi, ndipo nthawi zambiri matendawa amakula ndithu.[1] Ndipo pafupifupi 20 peresenti ya anthu omwe amadawala matendawa amachira bwinobwino,[4] ndipo pafupifupi hafu ya odwala onse, amavutika ndi matendawa kwa moyo wawo wonse.[13] Mavuto ofala amene odwala amakumana nawo amatha kukhala a nthawi yaitali ndithu, monga kusakhala pa ntchito, umphawi ndiponso kukhala opanda nyumba.[4][14] Pa avereji, anthu odwala matendawa moyo wawo umafukikirapo ndi zaka 10 mpaka 25 poyerekezera ndi anthu omwe sakudwala matendawa.[15] Izi zili chonchi chifukwa ambiri amatha kudwala matenda enanso kuwonjezera pa matenda a maganizo komanso anthu ambiri amadzipha (pafupifupi 5 peresenti).[11][16] M'chaka cha 2015 chokha, anthu pafupifupi 17,000 anafa padziko lonse chifukwa cha zochitika zokhudzana ndi kudwala matenda a maganizo.[17]

References[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Schizophrenia Fact sheet N°397". WHO. September 2015. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Schizophrenia". National Institute of Mental Health. January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  3. Buckley PF, Miller BJ, Lehrer DS, Castle DJ (March 2009). "Psychiatric comorbidities and schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 35 (2): 383–402. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn135. PMC 2659306. PMID 19011234.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 101–05. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Owen MJ, Sawa A, Mortensen PB (July 2016). "Schizophrenia". Lancet. 388 (10039): 86–97. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01121-6. PMC 4940219. PMID 26777917.
  6. Chadwick B, Miller ML, Hurd YL (October 2013). "Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness". Frontiers in Psychiatry (Review). 4: 129. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00129. PMC 3796318. PMID 24133461.
  7. Kavanagh DH, Tansey KE, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ (February 2015). "Schizophrenia genetics: emerging themes for a complex disorder". Molecular Psychiatry. 20 (1): 72–6. doi:10.1038/mp.2014.148. PMID 25385368.
  8. Picchioni MM, Murray RM (July 2007). "Schizophrenia". BMJ. 335 (7610): 91–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.39227.616447.BE. PMC 1914490. PMID 17626963.
  9. Kane JM, Correll CU (2010). "Pharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 12 (3): 345–57. PMC 3085113. PMID 20954430.
  10. Becker T, Kilian R (2006). "Psychiatric services for people with severe mental illness across western Europe: what can be generalized from current knowledge about differences in provision, costs and outcomes of mental health care?". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 113 (429): 9–16. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00711.x. PMID 16445476.
  11. 11.0 11.1 van Os J, Kapur S (August 2009). "Schizophrenia" (PDF). Lancet. 374 (9690): 635–45. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60995-8. PMID 19700006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 June 2013.
  12. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators (August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMC 4561509. PMID 26063472.
  13. Lawrence RE, First MB, Lieberman JA (2015). "Chapter 48: Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses". In Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman JA, First MB, Riba MB. Psychiatry (fourth ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 798, 816, 819. doi:10.1002/9781118753378.ch48. ISBN 978-1-118-84547-9.
  14. Foster A, Gable J, Buckley J (September 2012). "Homelessness in schizophrenia". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 35 (3): 717–34. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2012.06.010. PMID 22929875.
  15. Laursen TM, Munk-Olsen T, Vestergaard M (March 2012). "Life expectancy and cardiovascular mortality in persons with schizophrenia". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 25 (2): 83–8. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32835035ca. PMID 22249081.
  16. Hor K, Taylor M (November 2010). "Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 24 (4 Suppl): 81–90. doi:10.1177/1359786810385490. PMC 2951591. PMID 20923923.
  17. GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.