Somalia

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Dera lolamulidwa ndi Somalia likuwonetsedwa mumdima wobiriwira; onenedwa koma osalamulirika a Somaliland akuwonetsedwa mobiriwira. n.b., madera olamulira ndi pafupifupi panthawiyi.

Somalia, mwalamulo Federal Republic of Somalia (Somalia: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Chiarabu: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية), ndi dziko lomwe lili ku Horn of Africa. Dzikoli lili m’malire ndi Ethiopia kumadzulo, Djibouti kumpoto chakumadzulo, Gulf of Aden kumpoto, Indian Ocean kum’mawa, ndi Kenya kumwera chakumadzulo. Somalia ili ndi gombe lalitali kwambiri ku Africa. Madera ake amakhala makamaka mapiri, zigwa, ndi mapiri. Kutentha kumakhalapo chaka chonse, ndi mphepo yamkuntho ndi mvula yosakhazikika. Somalia ili ndi anthu pafupifupi 15 miliyoni, omwe opitilira 2 miliyoni amakhala likulu komanso mzinda waukulu kwambiri wa Mogadishu, ndipo akuti ndi dziko lachikhalidwe chosiyana kwambiri mu Africa. Pafupifupi 85% ya okhalamo ndi amtundu waku Somali, omwe adakhala kumpoto kwa dzikolo. Mafuko ang'onoang'ono amakhala makamaka kumwera. Zilankhulo zovomerezeka ku Somalia ndi Chisomali ndi Chiarabu. Anthu ambiri m’dzikoli ndi Asilamu, ndipo ambiri a iwo ndi a Sunni.

Kalekale, dziko la Somalia linali likulu la zamalonda. Ndilo m'gulu la malo omwe akuyembekezeka kwambiri ku Land of Punt wakale. M'zaka za m'ma Middle Ages, maufumu angapo amphamvu a ku Somalia ankalamulira malonda a m'madera, kuphatikizapo Ajuran Sultanate, Adal Sultanate, ndi Sultanate wa Geledi.

Chakumapeto kwa zaka za zana la 19, ma Sultanate aku Somali monga Isaaq Sultanate ndi Majeerteen Sultanate adalamulidwa ndi Italy, Britain ndi Ethiopia. Atsamunda aku Europe adaphatikiza madera a mafukowo kukhala madera awiri, omwe anali Somaliland ya ku Italy ndi British Somaliland Protectorate. Pakadali pano, mkati, a Dervishes motsogozedwa ndi Mohammed Abdullah Hassan adalimbana ndi Abyssinia, Italy Somaliland, ndi British Somaliland mu 1920 ndipo adagonjetsedwa mu Kampeni ya Somaliland ya 1920. Italy idatenga ulamuliro wonse kumpoto chakum'mawa, chapakati, ndi kumwera kwa derali pambuyo pochita bwino kampeni ya Sultanates motsutsana ndi olamulira a Majeerteen Sultanate ndi Sultanate of Hobyo. Mu 1960, madera awiriwa adagwirizana kuti apange dziko loyima palokha la Somali Republic pansi pa boma la anthu wamba.

Supreme Revolutionary Council idalanda mphamvu mu 1969 ndikukhazikitsa Somali Democratic Republic, kuyesa mwankhanza kuthana ndi Nkhondo Yodziyimira pawokha ya Somaliland kumpoto kwa dzikolo. SRC pambuyo pake idagwa patatha zaka 22, mu 1991, pomwe Nkhondo Yapachiweniweni ku Somali idayamba ndipo Somaliland idalengeza ufulu wawo. Somaliland ikulamulirabe gawo la kumpoto chakumadzulo kwa dziko la Somalia lomwe likuyimira 27% yokha ya gawo lake. Kuyambira nthawi imeneyi madera ambiri adabwereranso ku malamulo achikhalidwe ndi achipembedzo. Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 2000, maulamuliro angapo a nthawi yochepa adapangidwa. Transitional National Government (TNG) idakhazikitsidwa mchaka cha 2000, kenako kukhazikitsidwa kwa Transitional Federal Government (TFG) mu 2004, yomwe idakhazikitsanso gulu lankhondo la Somalia.

Mu 2006, mothandizidwa ndi dziko la United States lothandizidwa ndi dziko la Ethiopia, gulu la TFG lidayamba kuyang'anira madera ambiri akummwera kwa dzikolo kuchokera ku Islamic Courts Union (ICU) yomwe idakhazikitsidwa kumene. ICU pambuyo pake idagawika m'magulu amphamvu kwambiri, monga Al-Shabaab, omwe adalimbana ndi TFG ndi mabungwe ake a AMISOM kuti azilamulira chigawochi.

Pofika chapakati pa chaka cha 2012, zigawengazo zinali zitaluza madera ambiri amene analanda, ndipo ntchito yofunafuna mabungwe ambiri a demokalase yachikhalire inayamba. Ngakhale zili choncho, zigawenga zimayang'anirabe madera ambiri apakati ndi kumwera kwa Somalia, ndipo ali ndi mphamvu m'madera olamulidwa ndi boma, ndipo tawuni ya Jilib ikugwira ntchito ngati likulu la zigawenga. Lamulo latsopano lokhazikika linaperekedwa mu Ogasiti 2012, kusintha Somalia ngati chitaganya. Mwezi womwewo, Boma la Federal of Somalia lidapangidwa ndipo nthawi yomanganso idayamba ku Mogadishu. Dziko la Somalia lakhalabe ndi chuma chosalongosoka makamaka potengera ziweto, ndalama zomwe anthu aku Somali omwe amagwira ntchito kunja, komanso matelefoni. Ndi membala wa United Nations, Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement, ndi Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.