Somaliland

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Somaliland (Somalia (Somalia: Soomaaliland; Chiarabu: صوماليلاند Ṣūmālīlānd, أرض الصومال Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl), mwalamulo Republic of Somaliland , ndi dziko lodziwika bwino ku Horn of Africa, lomwe limawonedwa padziko lonse lapansi kukhala gawo la Somalia. Somaliland ili ku Horn of Africa, pagombe lakumwera kwa Gulf of Aden. Imakhala m'malire ndi Djibouti kumpoto chakumadzulo, Ethiopia kumwera ndi kumadzulo, ndi gawo losatsutsika la Somalia chakum'mawa. Dera lomwe amati lili ndi malo okwana masikweya kilomita 176,120 (68,000 sq mi),[1] okhala ndi anthu pafupifupi 5.7 miliyoni pofika 2021. Likulu ndi mzinda waukulu kwambiri ndi Hargeisa. Boma la Somaliland limadziona ngati dziko lolowa m'malo ku Britain Somaliland, yomwe, monga boma lodziyimira palokha la Somaliland, linagwirizana mu 1960 ndi Trust Territory of Somaliland (yomwe kale inali Somaliland yaku Italy) kuti ipange dziko la Somali Republic.[2]

Somaliland idakhalako koyamba zaka 10,000 zapitazo munthawi ya Neolithic.[3][4] Abusa akale ankaweta ng'ombe ndi ziweto zina ndipo ili ndi zojambula zowoneka bwino za miyala mu Africa. M'zaka zonse za m'ma Middle Ages, anthu othawa kwawo a Arabiya anafika ku Somaliland, kuphatikizapo ma sheikh achisilamu, Ishaaq bin Ahmed, omwe anayambitsa banja la Isaaq, ndi Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti omwe anayambitsa banja la Darod, omwe adachoka ku Arabia kupita ku Somaliland ndikukwatira. banja lakwawo la Dir, lomwe lafotokozedwa ngati nthano zopeka. Komanso m'zaka za m'ma Middle Ages, maufumu a ku Somalia ankalamulira malonda a m'madera, kuphatikizapo Sultanate of Ifat ndi Adal Sultanate.

M'zaka za zana la 18, Isaaq Sultanate, dziko la Somali lolowa m'malo mwa Adal Sultanate, linakhazikitsidwa ndi Sultan Guled Abdi ku Toon. Ulamuliro wa Sultana unafalikira mbali zina za Horn of Africa ndipo unakhudza madera apakati a Somaliland yamakono. Inali ndi chuma cholimba ndipo malonda anali ofunikira pa doko lake lalikulu la Berbera ndi tawuni yaying'ono ya doko la Bulhar, komanso chakum'mawa kumatawuni a Heis, Karin, ndi El-Darad omwe amatumiza lubani.

Chakumapeto kwa zaka za zana la 19, United Kingdom idasaina mapangano ndi mabanja a Habr Awal, Garhajis, Habr Je'lo, Warsangeli, Issa ndi Gadabuursi kuti akhazikitse chitetezo.

A Dervishes motsogozedwa ndi Muhammad Abdullah Hassan adatsutsana ndi mapangano achitetezo omwe adasainidwa ndi Britain ndi ma Sultan aku Somalia. Pambuyo pa zaka 20, a Dervishes adagonjetsedwa pa imodzi mwa mabomba oyambirira a ndege ku Africa mu 1920 Somaliland Campaign. Akuluakulu a mafuko, a Dhulbahante, omwe sanasaine pangano lachitetezo ndi a Briteni (chifukwa choti anthu aku Italiya amawona kuti ndi gawo la Dhulbahante monga nzika za Sultan wotetezedwa ku Italy wa fuko la Majeerteen) anali omwe adalimbikitsa kwambiri. za kayendedwe.

Pa 26 June 1960, chitetezo chinapeza ufulu wodzilamulira monga State of Somaliland, pasanathe masiku asanu modzifunira kugwirizana ndi Trust Territory of Somaliland, kutsatira ufulu wake wodzilamulira, kupanga Somali Republic. Mgwirizano wovomerezeka unachitika pakati pa madera awiriwa kudzera mwa oimira awo osankhidwa. Pa 27 June 1960, Legislative Assembly of Somaliland inakhazikitsa lamulo la Union ndi Somalia lomwe linanena kuti mabungwe awiriwa azikhala ogwirizana mpaka kalekale.

Zolemba[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  1. Lansford, Tom (2015-03-24). Political Handbook of the World 2015 (in English). CQ Press. ISBN 9781483371559.
  2. The New Encyclopædia Britannica (2002), p. 835.
  3. Bradley, D G; MacHugh, D E; Cunningham, P; Loftus, R T (1996-05-14). "Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and European cattle". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93 (10): 5131–5135. Bibcode:1996PNAS...93.5131B. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.10.5131. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 39419. PMID 8643540.
  4. Bearak, Max. "Somaliland's quest for recognition passes through its ancient caves". Washington Post (in English).