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South America

From Wikipedia
South America

South America ndi kontinenti yonse ku Western Hemisphere ndipo makamaka ku Southern Hemisphere, ndi gawo laling'ono ku Northern Hemisphere kumpoto kwenikweni kwa kontinenti. Itha kufotokozedwanso ngati gawo lakumwera kwa kontinenti imodzi yotchedwa America.

South America ndi malire kumadzulo ndi Pacific Ocean ndipo kumpoto ndi kum'mawa ndi Atlantic Ocean; North America ndi Nyanja ya Caribbean zili kumpoto chakumadzulo. Kontinentiyi imakhala ndi mayiko khumi ndi awiri odziyimira pawokha: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, ndi Venezuela; madera awiri omwe amadalira: Zilumba za Falkland ndi South Georgia ndi South Sandwich Islands;ndi gawo limodzi lamkati: French Guiana.Kuphatikiza apo, zilumba za ABC za Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (zodalira Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (yodalira Norway), Panama, ndi Trinidad ndi Tobago amathanso kuonedwa ngati mbali za South America.

South America ili ndi dera lalikulu ma kilomita 17,840,000 (6,890,000 sq mi). Chiwerengero cha anthu pofika chaka cha 2021 chikuyembekezeka kupitilira 434 miliyoni. South America ili pamalo achinayi m’dera (pambuyo pa Asia, Africa, ndi North America) ndipo yachisanu mwa anthu (pambuyo pa Asia, Africa, Europe, ndi North America). Dziko la Brazil ndilomwe lili ndi anthu ambiri ku South America, lomwe lili ndi anthu opitilira theka la anthu a ku Africa, ndikutsatiridwa ndi Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela ndi Peru. M'zaka makumi angapo zapitazi, dziko la Brazil lapanganso theka la GDP ya kontinenti ndipo lakhala dziko loyamba kulamulira m'chigawochi.

Anthu ambiri amakhala pafupi ndi magombe akumadzulo kapena kummawa kwa kontinentiyi pomwe mkatikati ndi kumwera kwenikweni kuli anthu ochepa. Malo akumadzulo kwa South America akulamulidwa ndi mapiri a Andes; mosiyana, gawo lakum'mawa lili ndi zigawo zonse zamapiri ndi zigwa zazikulu zomwe mitsinje monga Amazon, Orinoco ndi Paraná imayenda. Kontinenti yambiri ili kumadera otentha, kupatulapo gawo lalikulu la Southern Cone lomwe lili pakatikati.

Chikhalidwe ndi chikhalidwe cha kontinentiyi chinayambira ndi kuyanjana kwa anthu amtundu ndi ogonjetsa a ku Ulaya ndi othawa kwawo komanso, m'madera ambiri, ndi akapolo a ku Africa. Poganizira mbiri yakale yautsamunda, anthu ambiri aku South America amalankhula Chisipanishi kapena Chipwitikizi, ndipo madera ndi mayiko ali ndi miyambo yaku Western. Poyerekeza ndi Ulaya, Asia ndi Afirika, South America ya m’zaka za zana la 20 yakhala kontinenti yamtendere yokhala ndi nkhondo zochepa.

Makhalidwe ake[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Nkhani yayikulu: Makhalidwe a South America

South America ili kumwera chakumwera kwa America. Kontinentiyo nthawi zambiri imagawidwa kumpoto chakumadzulo ndi mtsinje wa Darién m'malire a Colombia-Panama, ngakhale ena angaganize kuti malirewo ndi Panama Canal. Mwachilengedwe komanso motengera malo, dziko lonse la Panama - kuphatikiza gawo lakum'mawa kwa Panama Canal pachisumbucho - limaphatikizidwa ku North America kokha komanso pakati pa mayiko a Central America. Pafupifupi dziko lonse la South America lili pa South America Plate.

South America ndi kwawo kwa mathithi apamwamba kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi osasokonezedwa, Angel Falls ku Venezuela; mathithi apamwamba kwambiri a Kaieteur Falls ku Guyana; mtsinje waukulu kwambiri ndi kuchuluka kwake, Mtsinje wa Amazon; mapiri aatali kwambiri, Andes (amene phiri lake lalitali kwambiri ndi Aconcagua pa 6,962 m kapena 22,841 ft); malo ouma kwambiri omwe si a polar padziko lapansi, Chipululu cha Atacama: malo amvula kwambiri padziko lapansi, López de Micay ku Colombia; nkhalango yamvula yaikulu kwambiri, nkhalango ya Amazon; likulu lapamwamba kwambiri, La Paz, Bolivia; nyanja ya Titicaca yomwe ndi yokwera kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi pakuyenda panyanja; komanso, kupatula malo ochitira kafukufuku ku Antarctica, dera lakumwera kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi komwe kuli anthu, Puerto Toro, Chile.

Ku South America kuli mchere wambiri wa golide, siliva, mkuwa, chitsulo, tini, ndi petroleum. Zinthu zimenezi zopezeka ku South America zabweretsa ndalama zambiri ku maiko ake makamaka m’nthaŵi za nkhondo kapena kukula kwachuma kofulumira kwa maiko otukuka kwina kulikonse. Komabe, kuchulukirachulukira pakupangira chinthu chimodzi chachikulu chotumiza kunja nthawi zambiri kwalepheretsa chitukuko cha mayiko osiyanasiyana azachuma. Kusinthasintha kwamitengo ya zinthu m'misika yapadziko lonse lapansi kwadzetsa kukwera ndi kutsika kwakukulu kwachuma chamayiko aku South America, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimayambitsa kusakhazikika kwandale. Izi zikubweretsa kuyesayesa kosiyanasiyana kupanga kuti tisiye kukhala ngati chuma chodzipereka ku chinthu chimodzi chachikulu chotumiza kunja.

Dziko la Brazil ndilo dziko lalikulu kwambiri ku South America, ndipo limatenga gawo locheperapo theka la malo a dziko lonselo ndipo limaphatikizapo pafupifupi theka la anthu a m’kontinentiyo.