Tenesi

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Roger Federer
Richèl Hogenkamp

Tenisi ndimasewera olimbirana omwe amatha kuseweredwa motsutsana ndi mdani m'modzi (osakwatira) kapena pakati pamagulu awiri a osewera awiri aliyense (awirikiza). Wosewera aliyense amagwiritsa ntchito chikwama cha tenisi chomwe chimamangidwa ndi chingwe kuti amenyetse mpira wa mphira wokutira wokutidwa kapena womangirira ukonde komanso kubwalo la wotsutsana. Cholinga cha masewerawa ndikuyendetsa mpira m'njira yoti mdani sangathe kusewera bwino. Wosewerayo yemwe sangabwezeretse mpira sangapezepo mfundo, pomwe wosewera wina atero.

Tenesi ndi masewera a Olimpiki ndipo amasewera m'magulu onse azikhalidwe komanso mibadwo yonse. Masewerawa amatha kuseweredwa ndi aliyense amene angathe kugwira chomenyera, kuphatikiza ogwiritsa ntchito olumala. Masewera amakono a tenisi adachokera ku Birmingham, England, kumapeto kwa zaka za 19th ngati tenisi ya udzu. Idali yolumikizana kwambiri ndimasewera osiyanasiyana (udzu) monga ma croquet ndi mbale komanso masewera achikulire omwe masiku ano amatchedwa tenisi weniweni. M'zaka zambiri za m'ma 1800, mawu akuti tenisi amatanthauza tenisi weniweni, osati tenisi ya udzu.

Malamulo a tenisi amakono asintha pang'ono kuyambira ma 1890. Kupatula kwina ndikuti kuyambira 1908 mpaka 1961 seva idayenera kuponda phazi limodzi nthawi zonse, ndikukhazikitsidwa kwa tiebreak m'ma 1970. Zowonjezera zaposachedwa pa tenisi yaukadaulo ndikukhazikitsidwa kwa ukadaulo wowerengera zamagetsi wophatikizidwa ndi dongosolo lazovuta, lomwe limalola wosewera kuti athe kutsutsana ndi mayitanidwe amawu, omwe amadziwika kuti Hawk-Eye.

Tenesi imaseweredwa ndi osewera mamiliyoni ambiri osangalatsanso ndimasewera odziwika apadziko lonse lapansi. Masewera anayi a Grand Slam (omwe amatchedwanso Majors) ndi otchuka kwambiri: Australia Open idasewera m'makhothi olimba, French Open idasewera m'makhothi ofiira ofiira, Wimbledon idasewera m'makhothi audzu, ndipo US Open idaseweranso makhothi olimba.

Makhalidwe osewerera[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Bwalo lamilandu la tenisi

Tenesi imaseweredwa pamakona anayi, osanja. Bwaloli ndi 78 mapazi (23.77 m) kutalika, ndi 27 (8.2 m) mulifupi pamasewera a single ndi 36 ft (11 m) pamasewera awiri. Malo owonjezera owonekera mozungulira khothi amafunikira kuti osewera azitha kufinya mipira. Khoka limatambasulidwa m'lifupi monse mwa bwaloli, mofanana ndi zigawo zapansi, ndikugawa magawo awiri ofanana. Imakwezedwa ndi chingwe kapena chingwe chachitsulo chosaposa 0.8 cm (1⁄3 mkati). Ukondewo ndi mainchesi 3 mainchesi 6 (1.07 m) kutalika pazitali ndi mamita 3 (0.91 m) kutalika pakati. Maukondewo amakhala 3 mita (0.91 m) kunja kwa khothi lowirikiza mbali zonse kapena, kwa ukonde umodzi, 3 feet (0.91 m) kunja kwa bwalo la single mbali zonse.

Khothi lamakono la tenisi liyenera kupangidwa ndi a Major Walter Clopton Wingfield. Mu 1873, Wingfield adasainira khothi lofanana kwambiri ndi lomwe alipano pa stické tenisi yake (sphairistike). Tsambali lidasinthidwa mu 1875 pamapangidwe amilandu omwe alipo masiku ano, okhala ndi zolemba zofanana ndi zomwe Wingfield adachita, koma mawonekedwe a khothi lake adasinthidwa kukhala rectangle.

Khothi la Tenesi ku Petäjävesi, Finland

Tenesi ndi yachilendo chifukwa imaseweredwa m'malo osiyanasiyana. Udzu, dongo, ndi makhothi olimba a konkire kapena asphalt okhala ndi akiliriki ndizofala kwambiri. Nthawi zina makalapeti amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochitira m'nyumba, pomwe pansi pake pamakhala zolimba. Milandu yamakina opangira amatha kupezekanso.

Mizere[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Mizere yomwe imalongosola m'lifupi mwa bwaloli amatchedwa maziko (kumbuyo kwenikweni) ndi mzere wothandizira (pakati pa khothi). Chizindikiro chazifupi pakati pazoyambira chilichonse chimatchedwa kuti hashi kapena pakati. Mizere yakunja yomwe imapanga kutalika amatchedwa mbali ziwiri; ndiwo malire amasewera awiri. Mizere mpaka mkatikati mwa mawiriwo ndi amodzi okhaokha ndipo ndi malire amasewera osasewera. Dera lomwe lili pakati pamzere wapakati komanso loyandikira pafupi kwambiri limatchedwa mayendedwe awiri, omwe amatha kusewera m'masewera awiri. Mzere womwe umadutsa pakatikati pa wosewera wosewerayo umatchedwa mzere wothandizira chifukwa ntchitoyo imayenera kuperekedwa kudera lomwe lili pakati pa mzere wothandizira ndi ukonde womwe umalandira. Ngakhale lili ndi dzina, apa si pomwe wosewera mwalamulo amaima movomerezeka.

Mzere wogawaniza mzere wawiri umatchedwa pakati kapena mzere wothandizira pakati. Mabokosi omwe mzerewu umapanga amatchedwa mabokosi azithandizo; kutengera momwe wosewera aliri, akuyenera kuti amenyetse mpira mu imodzi mwazomwe akutumikira. Mpira umatuluka pokhapokha ngati palibe imodzi yomwe yagunda malowa mkati mwa mizere, kapena mzere, pakangoyamba kumene. Mizere yonse imayenera kukhala pakati pa mainchesi 1 ndi 2 (25 ndi 51 mm) m'lifupi, kupatula mzere woyambira womwe ungakhale mpaka mainchesi 4 (100 mm), ngakhale pakuchita nthawi zambiri umakhala wofanana ena.

Sewerani mfundo imodzi[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Petäjävesi - tennis court.jpg

Osewera kapena magulu amayamba mbali zotsutsana ndi ukondewo. Wosewera m'modzi amatchedwa seva, ndipo wosewera yemwe akutsutsana ndi amene amalandila. Kusankha kukhala seva kapena wolandila pamasewera oyamba ndikusankha malekezero kumasankhidwa ndi kuponyera ndalama kusanachitike kutentha. Ntchito imasinthana masewera ndi masewera pakati pa osewera awiri kapena magulu. Pa mfundo iliyonse, seva imayambira kuseri kwa maziko, pakati pa chikwangwani chapakati ndi mzere. Wolandila amayamba kulikonse kumbali yawo yaukonde. Wolandirayo akakhala wokonzeka, seva imagwira ntchito, ngakhale wolandirayo akuyenera kusewera pamaseweredwe a sevayo.

Kuti ntchito ikhale yovomerezeka, mpira uyenera kuyenda pamwamba pa ukondewo osakhudza bokosi loyang'ana mozungulira. Ngati mpira wagunda ukondewo koma umakhala mu bokosi lautumiki, iyi ndi ntchito yolola kapena yopanda ntchito, yomwe ilibe kanthu, ndipo seva imabwezeretsanso zomwe zimatumikira. Wosewerayo atha kutumizirako ntchito zingapo ndipo nthawi zonse amamuwona ngati wopanda pake osati zolakwika. Cholakwika ndikutumizira komwe kumagwera motalika kapena mulitali mwa bokosi lazantchito, kapena sikukonza ukonde. Palinso "vuto lamapazi" pomwe phazi la wosewera mpira limakhudza momwe zakhalira kapena kukulitsa chizindikiro chapakati mpira usanagundidwe. Ngati ntchito yachiwiri, pambuyo pa cholakwika, ilinso vuto, seva imalakwitsa kawiri, ndipo wolandirayo amapambana mfundoyi. Komabe, ngati ntchitoyi ili mkati, imawonedwa ngati ntchito yalamulo.

Ntchito yalamulo imayamba msonkhano, pomwe osewera amasinthana mpira. Kubwerera mwalamulo kumakhala ndi wosewera yemwe akumenya mpira kuti ugwere m'bwalo la seva, asanagundike kawiri kapena kugunda masewera aliwonse kupatula ukonde. Wosewera kapena timu sangathe kumenya mpira kawiri motsatira. Bwalo liyenera kuyenda mozungulira kapena kuzungulira ukonde kubwalo la osewera enawo. Mpira womwe umagunda ukonde pamsonkhano umawerengedwa kuti ukubwerera mwalamulo bola utadutsa mbali yina ya khothi. Wosewera woyamba kapena timu yomwe yalephera kubwezera mwalamulo amataya mfundo. Sevayo imasunthira mbali inayo ya mzere wothandizira kumayambiriro kwa mfundo yatsopano.

Kugoletsa[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Masewera, khazikitsani, fanani[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Masewera[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Masewera amakhala ndi mndandanda wa mfundo zomwe zimaseweredwa ndi wosewera yemweyo akutumikira. Masewera amapambanidwa ndi wosewera woyamba kuti apambane osachepera mfundo zinayi kwathunthu osachepera mfundo ziwiri kuposa wotsutsana naye. Mapikisano othamanga pamasewera aliwonse amafotokozedwa m'njira yodziwika ndi tenisi: zambiri kuchokera pa zero mpaka pa mfundo zitatu zimatchedwa "chikondi", "15", "30", ndi "40", motsatana. Ngati wosewera aliyense wapata mfundo zitatu, zomwe zimapangitsa wosewerayo kukhala wofanana ndi 40 imodzi, malowo samatchedwa "40-40", koma "deuce". Ngati osachepera atatu atoleza ndi mbali iliyonse ndipo wosewera ali ndi mfundo imodzi kuposa yemwe amamutsutsa, kuchuluka kwa masewerawa ndi "mwayi" kwa wosewera yemwe akutsogolera. Pakati pamasewera osalongosoka, mwayi amathanso kutchedwa "kulengeza mu" kapena "van mu" pomwe wosewera akutsogola, komanso "kutsatsa" kapena "kutuluka" wosewera wolandila ali patsogolo; Kapenanso, wosewera aliyense atha kungoyitana "malonda anga" kapena "malonda anu" mukamasewera mwamwayi. Zolemba pamasewera a tenisi pamasewera nthawi zonse zimawerengedwa ndi mphambu ya wosewera woyamba. M'masewero ampikisano, woyimbira wampando amatcha kuwerengera kwa mfundo (mwachitsanzo, "15-chikondi") pambuyo pa mfundo iliyonse. Pamapeto pa masewerawa, woyimbira pampando adalengezanso wopambana masewerawo ndi zigoli zonse.

Khazikitsani[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Seti ili ndi mndandanda wamasewera omwe amaseweredwa ndi ntchito yosinthana pakati pamasewera, kutha pomwe kuchuluka kwa masewera omwe apambana amakwaniritsa zofunikira zina. Nthawi zambiri, wosewera amapambana masewerawa pakupambana masewera osachepera asanu ndi limodzi komanso osachepera awiri kuposa wopikisana naye. Ngati wosewera m'modzi wapambana masewera asanu ndi mmodzi ndipo wotsutsa asanu, masewera ena amasewera. Ngati wosewera akutsogola apambana masewerawa, wosewerayo apambana seti ya 7-5. Ngati wosewerayo apambana masewerawa (akumangiriza seti 6-6) tayi-break imasewera. T-break-break, yomwe imaseweredwa pansi pa malamulo osiyana, imalola wosewera m'modzi kuti apambane masewera ena ndipo potero, kuti apereke mphambu womaliza wa 7-6. "Chikondi" chimatanthawuza kuti wotaya seti adapambana masewera a zero, omwe amatchedwa "jam donut" ku US. M'masewera ampikisano, woyang'anira wapampando alengeza wopambana pamndandandawo komanso zigoli zonse. Mapeto omaliza amawerengedwa ndi woyamba wosewera woyamba, mwachitsanzo. "6-2, 4-6, 6-0, 7-5".

Fanani[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Masewera ali ndi magawo angapo. Zotsatira zimatsimikizika kudzera pamakina atatu kapena asanu. Pa dera la akatswiri, amuna amasewera masewera asanu mwa asanu pamipikisano yonse ya Grand Slam, Davis Cup, komanso komaliza pa Masewera a Olimpiki ndi machesi apamwamba atatu pamasewera ena onse, pomwe azimayi amasewera bwino kwambiri -masewera atatu osankhidwa pamasewera onse. Wosewera woyamba kupambana maseti awiri pamipikisano itatu, kapena atatu mwa asanu-asanu, amapambana masewerawo. Mumasewera omaliza okha ku French Open, Masewera a Olimpiki, ndi Fed Cup ndiomwe tiebreaks sanaseweredwe. Pakadali pano, ma seti amasewera mpaka kalekale mpaka wosewera m'modzi atsogoza masewera awiri, nthawi zina amatsogolera kumasewera ena ataliatali.

M'maseweredwe ampikisano, wampando wapampando alengeza kutha kwa masewerawa ndi mawu odziwika bwino "Game, set, match" otsatiridwa ndi dzina la wopambana kapena timuyo.

Akuluakulu[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Woweruza tenisi

M'masewero ambiri ampikisano komanso mpikisano winawake wamasewera, pamakhala woweruza wamkulu woweruza kapena wapampando wampando (nthawi zambiri amatchedwa umpire), yemwe amakhala pampando wokwera mbali imodzi yamakhothi. Woyimbirayo ali ndi mphamvu zokwanira kutsimikizira zowona. Woweruzayo atha kuthandizidwa ndi oweruza, omwe amawona ngati mpira wagwera mkati mwa bwalo lamilandu komanso omwe amatcha zolakwika pamapazi. Pakhoza kukhalanso woweruza waukonde yemwe amawona ngati mpira wakhudza ukondewo pantchito. Woyimbirayo ali ndi ufulu wopitilira woweruza kapena woweruza ngati wotsimikizirayo walakwitsa.

M'mapikisano am'mbuyomu, oweruza omwe amayitanitsa kutumikirako nthawi zina amathandizidwa ndi masensa amagetsi omwe amalira kuti asonyeze kutumizidwa kunja; imodzi mwa makina oterewa amatchedwa "Cyclops". Kuyambira pamenepo ma cyclops adasinthidwa ndi makina a Hawk-Eye. M'mipikisano yapaukadaulo yogwiritsa ntchito makinawa, osewera amaloledwa kupempha katatu kosapambana, kuphatikiza pempholi limodzi kuti tiwatsutse mafoni oyandikira kudzera pakuwunikanso pakompyuta. US Open, Miami Masters, US Open Series, ndi World Team Tennis adayamba kugwiritsa ntchito njira yovutayi mu 2006 ndipo Australia Open ndi Wimbledon adayambitsa njirayi mchaka cha 2007. M'masewera amkhothi adothi, monga ku French Open, mayitanidwe akhoza afunsidwe mafunso potengera chizindikiro chomwe chasiyidwa ndi zomwe mpira udachita pabwalo.

Woyimira milandu, yemwe nthawi zambiri samakhala kubwalo lamilandu, ndiye womaliza pamalamulo a tenisi. Akaitanidwa kubwalo lamilandu ndi wosewera kapena woyang'anira timu, woweruzayo atha kusintha lingaliro la woweruzayo ngati malamulo a tenisi aphwanyidwa (funso lamalamulo) koma sangasinthe lingaliro la woweruzayo pankhani yokhudza. Ngati, komabe, woweruzayo ali kukhothi pamasewera, woweruzayo atha kupikisana ndi chisankho cha woweruzayo. (Izi zitha kuchitika pamasewera a Davis Cup kapena Fed Cup, osati pagulu la World Group, pomwe wowongolera pampando ochokera kudziko lomwe sililoledwa ali pampando).

Anyamata ndi atsikana a mpira atha kulembedwa ntchito kuti atenge mipira, kuwapatsira osewerayo, ndikupatsa osewera matawulo awo. Alibe udindo woweruza. Muzochitika zosowa (mwachitsanzo, ngati apwetekedwa kapena ngati ayambitsa chopinga), woyimbirayo angawafunse kuti anene zomwe zachitika. Woyimbirayo angaganizire zonena zawo popanga chisankho. M'mapikisano ena, makamaka mipikisano yaying'ono, osewera amapanga mafoni awo, kudalirana kuti akhale achilungamo. Izi ndizochitika pamasewera ambiri pasukulu komanso kuyunivesite. Woyimira milandu kapena wothandizira, komabe, atha kuyitanidwa kukhothi pempho la wosewera, ndipo woyimbira kapena wothandizira angasinthe mayitanidwe a wosewera. M'masewera osakwaniritsidwa, mpira umatulutsidwa pokhapokha ngati wosewerayo ali ndi ufulu woimbira foni atsimikiza kuti mpira wachotsedwa.

Kuwerenga kwina[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  • Barrett, John. Wimbledon: The Official History of the Championships (HarperCollins, 2001) ISBN 978-0-00-711707-9
  • Collins, Bud. History of Tennis – An Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book (New Chapter Press, 2010) ISBN 978-0-942257-70-0
  • Danzig, Allison and Peter Schwed (ed.). The Fireside Book of Tennis (Simon & Schuster, 1972) ISBN 978-0-671-21128-8
  • Doherty, Reginald Frank. R.F. and H.L. Doherty – On Lawn Tennis (Kessinger Publishing, 2010) ISBN 978-1-167-08589-5
  • Dwight, Eleanor. Tie Breaker – Jimmy Van Alen and Tennis in the 20th century (Scala Books, 2010) ISBN 978-1-905377-40-4
  • Gillmeister, Heiner. Tennis: A Cultural History (Continuum, 1998) ISBN 978-0-7185-0195-2
  • Grimsley, Will. Tennis – Its History, People and Events (Prentice-Hall, 1971) ISBN 0-13-903377-7
  • King, Billie Jean and Starr, Cynthia. We Have Come a Long Way (McGraw-Hill, 1998) ISBN 0-07-034625-9
  • Whitman, Malcolm D. Tennis – Origins and Mysteries (Dover Publications, 2004) ISBN 0-486-43357-9

Zolemba zakunja[Sinthani | sintha gwero]