William IV

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Mfumuyi ikuwonetsedwa pano ku Garter Robes ndi dzanja lake lamanja pa lupanga lake ndi Korona wa St Edward ndi ndodo pambali pake pa khushoni wokhala patebulo lokutidwa. Amavala kolala ya Order ya Garter ndi cholembera chachikulu cha George kuchokera pamenepo. Kutali kumanja ndikuwona Round Tower ya Windsor Castle.


William IV (William Henry; 21 Ogasiti 1765 - 20 Juni 1837) anali Mfumu ya United Kingdom ya Great Britain ndi Ireland komanso King of Hanover kuyambira 26 June 1830 mpaka kumwalira kwake mu 1837. Mwana wachitatu wa George III, William adalowa m'malo mwa mkulu wake m'bale George IV, kukhala mfumu yomaliza komanso mfumu yomaliza ya Nyumba yaku Britain ya Hanover.

William adatumikira ku Royal Navy ali mwana, amakhala ku North America ndi ku Caribbean, ndipo pambuyo pake adatchedwa "Sailor King". Mu 1789, adapangidwa Duke wa Clarence ndi St Andrews. Mu 1827, adasankhidwa kukhala Lord High Admiral waku Britain kuyambira 1709. Akulu ake awiri atamwalira osasiya zifukwa zomveka, adalandira mpando wachifumu ali ndi zaka 64. Mu ulamuliro wake padasinthidwa zambiri: malamulo osavomerezeka adasinthidwa, kuletsedwa kwa ana kuletsedwa, ukapolo udathetsedwa pafupifupi mu Britain, komanso zisankho zaku Britain zidasinthidwa ndi Reform Act 1832. Ngakhale William sanalowerere ndale mofanana ndi mchimwene wake kapena abambo ake, ndiye anali mfumu yomaliza yaku Britain kusankha nduna yayikulu yosemphana ndi zofuna za Nyumba Yamalamulo. Anapatsa ufumu wake waku Germany malamulo osakhalitsa owolowa manja.

Panthawi yomwe amwalira, William analibe ana ovomerezeka, koma anapulumuka ndi ana asanu ndi atatu mwa apathengo omwe anali nawo ndi Dorothea Jordan, yemwe adakhala naye zaka makumi awiri. Chakumapeto kwa moyo, adakwatirana ndipo zikuwoneka kuti adakhalabe wokhulupirika kwa Mfumukazi Adelaide waku Saxe-Meiningen. William adalowa m'malo mwa mchimwene wake Victoria ku United Kingdom ndi mchimwene wake Ernest Augustus ku Hanover..[1][2]

Kulamulira[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Ulamuliro woyambirira[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Pamene King George IV amwalira pa 26 June 1830 osapulumuka vuto, William adalowa m'malo mwa King William IV. Ali ndi zaka 64, anali munthu wachikulire kwambiri asanakhale pampando wachifumu waku Britain. Mosiyana ndi mchimwene wake wamatama, William anali wopanda ulemu, wokhumudwitsa komanso wokondwerera. Mosiyana ndi George IV, yemwe amakhala nthawi yayitali ku Windsor Castle, William amadziwika, makamaka koyambirira kwa ulamuliro wake, kuyenda, osayenda limodzi, kudutsa London kapena Brighton. Mpaka Zovuta Zosintha zitasokoneza mayimidwe ake, anali wodziwika kwambiri pakati pa anthu, omwe amamuwona kuti ndi wofikirika komanso wotsika kuposa m'bale wake.[3][4]

Nthawi yomweyo a King adatsimikizira kuti ndi wakhama pantchito. Prime Minister, Wellington, adanena kuti adachita bizinesi yambiri ndi a King William m'mphindi khumi kuposa zomwe adachita ndi George IV m'masiku ambiri. A Lord Brougham adamufotokoza kuti anali munthu wabwino kwambiri, akumafunsa mafunso okwanira kuti amuthandize kumvetsetsa nkhaniyi - pomwe George IV adaopa kufunsa mafunso kuwopa kuti angawonetse kusazindikira kwake ndipo George III angafunse ambiri osadikirira kuti amuyankhe.[5][6]

Mfumuyo idachita zonse zotheka kuti anthu amukonde. A Charlotte Williams-Wynn adangolemba kumene atangolowa ufumu: "Pakadali pano a King anali osatopa pakuyesera kuti adzipangitse kutchuka, ndikupanga zinthu zabwino komanso zabwino nthawi zonse." Emily Eden anati: "Ndiwosintha kwambiri nyama yotsiriza yosakhululuka, yomwe idamwalira ikulira mosasamala m'phanga lake ku Windsor. Munthuyu akufuna kuti aliyense asangalale, ndipo zonse zomwe wachita zakhala zabwino."[7][8]

William adachotsa oyang'anira achifwamba achi French komanso gulu lachijeremani, ndikuwasintha achingerezi kuti avomereze anthu. Adapereka zojambula zambiri za George IV kudziko ndikuchepetsa theka lachifumu. George anali atayamba kukonzanso kwakukulu (komanso kotsika mtengo) ku Buckingham Palace; William anakana kukhala komweko, ndipo kawiri anayesera kupatsa nyumba yachifumuyo, kamodzi kwa Asitikali ngati nyumba, ndipo kamodzi ku Nyumba Yamalamulo Nyumba Zanyumba Zanyumba zitatenthedwa mu 1834. ku Brighton, a King William amatumiza ku mahotela kuti akapeze mndandanda wa alendo awo ndikuyitanitsa aliyense amene amawadziwa kuti adzadye nawo chakudya chamadzulo, kuwalimbikitsa alendo kuti "asavutike ndi zovala. Mfumukazi imangopanga kanthu koma kukometsa maluwa atadya."[9][10]

Atatenga mpando wachifumu, William sanaiwale ana ake apathengo asanu ndi anayi omwe adatsala, ndikupanga mwana wawo wamwamuna wamkulu Earl wa Munster ndikupatsa ana enawo kutsogozedwa ndi mwana wamkazi kapena wamwamuna wam'mbuyomu. Ngakhale izi, ana ake amatenga mwayi wopeza mwayi wochulukirapo, zonyansa zomwe atolankhani adatinso "kupusa ndi nkhanza za FitzJordans sizitsanzo". Ubale pakati pa William ndi ana ake "udasokonekera chifukwa cha nkhanza zingapo ndipo, kwa King, mikangano yopweteka" yokhudza ndalama ndi ulemu. Ana ake aakazi, mbali inayi, adatsimikizira kukongola kwa bwalo lake, monga, "Onsewo, mukudziwa, ndiwokongola komanso okangalika, ndikupanga gulu munjira yomwe mafumu enieni sakanatha."[11][12]

Zolemba zakunja[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  1. Staff writer (25 January 1831). "Scots Greys". The Times. UK. p. 3. ...they will have the additional honour of attending our "Sailor King"...
  2. Staff writer (29 June 1837). "Will of his late Majesty William IV". The Times. UK. p. 5. ...ever since the accession of our sailor King...
  3. Ashley, p. 3.
  4. Allen, pp. 83–86; Ziegler, pp. 150–154.
  5. Van der Kiste, p. 179.
  6. Somerset, p. 122.
  7. Van der Kiste, p. 178.
  8. Somerset, p. 110–122.
  9. Somerset, p. 119f.
  10. Morning Post quoted in Ziegler, p. 158.
  11. Ziegler, pp. 158–159.
  12. Somerset, p. 117.