Zilonda Zapakhungu

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Zilonda Zapakhungu
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
Chilonda chachikulu chapakhungu padzanja la munthu wamkulu ndithu ku Central America
Chilonda chachikulu chapakhungu padzanja la munthu wamkulu ndithu ku Central America
ICD/CIM-10B55 B55
ICD/CIM-9085 085
DiseasesDB3266
MedlinePlus001386

Zilonda zapakhungu zomwe pa Chingelezi zimatchedwa Leishmaniasis kapenanso leishmaniosis, ndi matenda amene amayambitsidwa ndi tizilombo ta m'gulu la mapulotozowa otchedwa Leishmania ndipo tizilomboti zimafalitsidwa ndi ntchentche zinazake zoluma.[1] Matendawa angagawidwe m'magulu atatu: zilonda zazikulu, zilonda zamafinya, ndiponso zilonda zapakhungu la ziwalo za mkati mwathupi.[1] Matenda a m'gulu loyambalo amadziwika chifukwa cha kukula kwa zilonda zake, pomwe a m'gulu lachiwirilo amadziwika ndi zilonda zamafinya pakhungu, m'kamwa ndiponso m'phuno, pomwe gulu lomalizalo limadziwika ndi zilonda zapakhungu, kuphwanya thupi, kuchepa kwa masero ofiira m'thupi, ndiponso kutupa kwa kapamba ndi chiwindi.[1][2]

Matendawa amafalitsidwa ndi mitundu yoposa 20 ya tizilombo totchedwa Leishmania.[1] Zinthu zinanso zimene zimachititsa kuti matendawa afalikire kwambiri ndi umphawi, kusowa kwa zakudya m'thupi, kudula mitengo mwachisawawa ndiponso kuchulukana kwa anthu m'matauni.[1] Madokotala angadziwe ngati munthu ali ndi matendawa, mtundu uliwonse pa mitundu itatu ija, ngati ataunika chilonda cha munthuyo ndi makina oonera zinthu zosaoneka ndi maso kuti aone tizilomboto.[1] Kuwonjezera pamenepa, matenda a zilonda zapakhungu la ziwalo za mkati mwa thupi angadziwike ngati madokotala atayeza magazi a munthu amene akuoneka kuti akudwala.[2]

Anthu angapewe matendawa ngati atamagona m'maneti onyikidwa m'mankhwala.[1] Zinthu zinanso zimene zingathandize munthu kupewa matendawa ndi kupopera mankhwala opha tizilombo touluka monga ntchentche, komanso ngati kulandira thandizo lakuchipatala akangoyamba kumene kudwala n'cholinga choti matendawa asafalikire.[1] Madokotala amapereka mankhwala oyenerera kwa wodwala potengera malo amene watengera matendawo, mtundu wa tizilombo ta Leishmania timene tayambitsa matendawa, komanso mtundu wa matendawo.[1] Ena mwa mankhwala amene amathandiza kuchiza matenda a zilonda zapakhungu la ziwalo za m'kati mwathupi ndi liposomal amphotericin B,[3] komanso mankhwala a pentavalent antimonials kuwaphatikiza ndi a paromomycin , ndi Miltefosine.[4] Ndipo zilonda zikuluzikulu za pakhungu zingachiritsidwe ndi paromomycin, fluconazole, kapenanso pentamidine.[5]

Panopa, pali anthu pafupifupi 12 miliyoni omwe ali ndi matendawa[6] m'mayiko okwana 98.[2] Ndipo chaka chilichonse, anthu atsopano okwana pafupifupi 2 miliyoni amatenga matendawa [2] ndipo anthu oyambira pa 20 mpaka 50 sauzande amamwalira ndi matendawa chaka chilichonse.[1][7] Anthu pafupifupi 200 miliyoni a ku Asia, Africa, South ndi Central America, ndiponso m'mayiko ena a kummwera kwa Ulaya akukhala m'madera amene matendawa ndi ofala.[2][8] Bungwe Loona za Umoyo Padziko Lonsen limagula mankhwala a matendawa pa mtengo wotsikirapo n'cholinga choti anthu omwe akudwala azilandira thandizo mosavuta.[2] Nthawi zina matendawa amatha kugwira zinyama zosiyanasiyana, monga agalu, makoswe, mbewa, mbira, ndi zina zotero.[1]

Malifalensi[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "Leishmaniasis Fact sheet N°375". World Health Organization. January 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Barrett, MP; Croft, SL (2012). "Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis". British medical bulletin. 104: 175–96. doi:10.1093/bmb/lds031. PMC 3530408. PMID 23137768.
  3. Sundar, S; Chakravarty, J (Jan 2013). "Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy". Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 14 (1): 53–63. doi:10.1517/14656566.2013.755515. PMID 23256501.
  4. Dorlo, TP; Balasegaram, M; Beijnen, JH; de Vries, PJ (Nov 2012). "Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 67 (11): 2576–97. doi:10.1093/jac/dks275. PMID 22833634.
  5. Minodier, P; Parola, P (May 2007). "Cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment". Travel medicine and infectious disease. 5 (3): 150–8. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2006.09.004. PMID 17448941.
  6. "Leishmaniasis Magnitude of the problem". World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  7. Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.
  8. Ejazi, SA; Ali, N (Jan 2013). "Developments in diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis during the last decade and future prospects". Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 11 (1): 79–98. doi:10.1586/eri.12.148. PMID 23428104.