Czech Republic

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Czech, dzina lovomerezeka la Czech Republic, ndi dziko ku Central Europe. Inapeza ufulu pa Januware 1, 1993 ngati boma lolowa m'malo la Czechoslovakia, pomwe isanakhale ngati amodzi mwa mayiko awiri a feduro la Czechoslovak. Zimamanganso zaka zoposa chikwi za mbiri yaku Czech statehood ndi chikhalidwe. Malinga ndi malamulo ake, Czech Republic ndi nyumba yamalamulo, demokalase yolamulidwa ndi malamulo ndi maboma owolowa manja komanso andale kutengera mpikisano wamagulu azipani ndi mayendedwe. Mtsogoleri wa dziko ndiye Purezidenti wa Republic, bungwe lopambana komanso lokhalo lokhalo ndi Nyumba yamalamulo ya Czech Republic, boma la Czech Republic lili pachimake pamphamvu.

Czech Republic ndi dziko lazachuma pamsika lomwe, malinga ndi zachuma, zandale komanso zandale monga GDP pamunthu, cholozera cha chitukuko cha anthu, cholozera cha ufulu wa atolankhani kapena cholozera cha intaneti kuchokera pakuwunika, ndi amayiko otukuka kwambiri padziko lapansi. Chuma, malinga ndi World Bank, ndi gulu la mayiko 31 olemera kwambiri padziko lapansi omwe ali ndi ndalama zambiri. Poyerekeza ndi mayiko ena, ili ndi anthu ochepa kwambiri omwe amakhala kumunsi kwa umphawi. Zikuwonetsanso kusagwirizana pakati pa anthu olemera kwambiri komanso osauka kwambiri komanso kugawa chuma moyenera pakati pa anthu.

Kuchuluka kwa ulova kwakhala kotsika kwanthawi yayitali komanso ochepera maiko otukuka. M'malo owerengera zachilengedwe, Czech Republic ndi yocheperako ngongole zachilengedwe poyerekeza ndi mayiko ena otukuka. Malinga ndi Global Peace Index, yomwe imalembedwa chaka chilichonse ndi Institute for Economics and Peace, dziko la Czech Republic lakhala limodzi mwa mayiko 15 otetezeka (pakati pa 5 ndi 15) padziko lapansi (mndandandawu umaganizira za kuwopsa kwa nkhondo komanso kuchuluka kwa ziwawa zapakhomo).

Czech Republic ndi membala wa European Union, North Atlantic Alliance, United Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organisation, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Council of Europe, Organisation for Security and Co-operation ku Europe, European Customs Union ndi dera la Schengen. European Economic Area, membala wa Visegrad Group ndi mabungwe ena apadziko lonse lapansi.

Czech Republic ndi dziko lopanda malo okhala ndi 78,866 km2. Imadutsa Germany kumadzulo (kutalika kwa malire 810 km), Poland kumpoto (762 km), Slovakia kum'mawa (252 km) ndi Austria kumwera (466 km). Moyang'anira, imagawidwa m'magawo asanu ndi atatu ndipo nthawi yomweyo madera odziyang'anira 14. Likulu ndi Prague, yemwenso ndi amodzi mwa zigawo. Mu 2020, pafupifupi anthu 10.7 miliyoni amakhala ku Czech Republic. Anthu ambiri akuti ndi ochokera ku Czech kapena ku Moravia.

Mapangidwe azikhalidwe zaku Czech Republic[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Czech Republic ikupitilizabe chikhalidwe cha Great Moravia, kuyambira m'zaka za zana lachisanu ndi chinayi, Czech Principality, Czech Kingdom, Silesian Principalities ndi Silesian Duchy, Moravian Margraviate, ndi Czechoslovakia.

Gawo loyambirira lolembedwa m'chigawo cha Czech Republic masiku ano linali mgwirizano wamtundu wa Smi, mu theka lachiwiri la 9th Ufumu Wamkulu wa Moravia unakhazikitsidwa. Pamene idasowa mozungulira 907 ndikuwukiridwa ndi mafuko osamukira ku Hungary, chidwi cha chitukuko cha dziko chidasamukira ku Bohemia. Olamulira akumaloko a mzera wa Přemyslid adamanga dziko lakale la Přemyslid, lotchedwanso dziko la Czech (ulamuliro waku Czech, pambuyo pake Czech Kingdom), kuyambira kumapeto kwa zaka za zana la 10 ndi 11th kukhala gawo la Ufumu Woyera wa Roma. Kuyambira nthawi ya Charles IV. (1348) adagwiritsanso ntchito dzina loti dziko la Czech Crown m'malo omwe amalandiridwa ndi mfumu yaku Czech, lomwe limaphatikizaponso Moravia Margraviate ndi Duchy waku Upper ndi Lower Silesia.

Kuchokera mu 1526, maiko aku Czech adaphatikizidwa pang'onopang'ono mu ufumu wa Habsburg, omwe olamulira awo adagwiritsa ntchito kupambana kwawo pa Nkhondo ya White Mountain m'malo a Czech (1620) kuti achepetse kwambiri ufulu wakale wa Czech Kingdom. Maiko a Crown Czech, omwe sanali oyanjana ndi malamulo pambuyo pa 1749, adakhalabe malo opatsa ulemu a Habsburgs mpaka kumapeto kwa Nkhondo Yadziko Lonse mu 1918. Kuyambira 1804 ufumu wa Habsburg udali ndi dzina lovomerezeka la Austrian Empire ndipo kuyambira 1867 mphamvuyo idatchedwa Austria-Hungary.

Pambuyo pa kutha kwa Austria-Hungary mu 1918, Czechoslovakia idakhala ngati dziko logwirizana lokhala ndi Republican. Mu 1939, dera lomwe masiku ano limatchedwa Czech Republic lidalandidwa ndi gulu lankhondo laku Germany ndipo chidole chotetezera Bohemia ndi Moravia chidakhazikitsidwa. Czechoslovakia idabwezeretsedwanso mu 1945, ndipo kuyambira 1960 idakhala ndi dzina lovomerezeka la Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Adagwirizanitsidwa mu 1969, ndipo monga gawo la njirayi, Czech Socialist Republic, dziko loyimira palokha, linali patsogolo pa Czech Republic malinga ndi malamulo apadziko lonse lapansi. Dzinalo lakhala likudziwika ndi dziko la Czech kuyambira pa Marichi 6, 1990, pomwe mawu oti "socialist" adachotsedwa padzina pambuyo pa kugwa kwa boma la chikominisi. Czechoslovakia idalandira dzina latsopano lovomerezeka mu 1990: Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. Pambuyo pake, kumapeto kwa 1992, komabe, idasowa ndikusinthidwa ndi mayiko awiri atsopano, Czech Republic ndi Slovakia. Pa 1 Januware 1993, Constitution of the Czech Republic idayamba kugwira ntchito, malinga ndi zomwe mawu oyambilira akupitilizabe dziko latsopanoli pachikhalidwe cha Czechoslovakia komanso mayiko akale a Czech Crown.

Kukhalapo kwa Czech Republic ngati nkhani yamalamulo apadziko lonse lapansi kumavomerezedwa ndi mayiko onse padziko lapansi. Mpaka pa 8 Seputembara 2009, pomwe ubale wazokambirana udakhazikitsidwa, Liechtenstein sinavomerezedwe ngati boma lodziyimira pawokha. Liechtenstein adalola dziko la Czech kuvomereza palimodzi kukambirana pazachuma ngati chofunikira chakuzindikiritsa ndikukhazikitsa ubale wapadziko lonse (mikangano yokhudza malo yakhalapo pakati pa Liechtenstein ndi Czechoslovakia kuyambira kukhazikitsidwa kwa Czechoslovakia; Zoyeserera za Liechtenstein zoletsa Czech Republic kulowa m'mabungwe apadziko lonse sizinachitike.

Dzina ndi boma zizindikiro[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Dzinalo la boma malinga ndi malamulo ndi Czech Republic; dzina loti Czech silimapezeka m'malamulo (monganso Czechoslovakia sinawonekeremo - dzinalo siliyenera kukhala gawo lamalamulo), koma ndi gawo limodzi la nkhokwe zachikhalidwe za UN ngati dzina lamtundu umodzi. Mu Meyi 2016, boma lidavomerezanso kumasulira kwa dzina la Česko mchingerezi (Czechia) ndi zilankhulo zina zapadziko lonse lapansi (fr. Tchéquie, šp. Chequia, etc.)

Ena mwa anthu amakana mawu oti Czech makamaka chifukwa chachilendo - chimodzimodzi dzina loti Czechoslovakia, mwachitsanzo, poyamba adakanidwa. Kugwiritsa ntchito koyamba kwa dzina loti Czech Republic kudalembedwa mu 1704 ngati chisonyezo chokhudza madera onse aku Czech, ndipo mu 1777 monga tanthauzo lofanana la Bohemia. Panthawi yachitsitsimutso chadziko lonse, mawonekedwe aku Czech ndi Czech ochokera ku "Bohemia" adagwiritsidwanso ntchito. Fomu yaku Czech idagwiritsidwanso ntchito molakwika panthawiyo. Kusiya ziyankhulo kunathandizanso kusiya "s" imodzi pamtengowu. Kuyambira m'zaka za zana la 19, dzina loti Czech Republic laonekeranso monga dzina la mayiko onse aku Czech. Mwanjira imeneyi, katswiri wazilankhulo zaku Moravia František Trávníček adayamba kulimbikitsa izi mu 1938. The Dictionary of the Literary Language of the Czech Language mu 1960 adalifotokozera m'matanthawuzo onse komanso ngati lotha ntchito. M'ngululu ya 1993, Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre idasankha kukhala dzina limodzi ku Czech Republic yodziyimira payokha, pambuyo pamikangano yamphamvu, kuthandizidwa ndi Czech Geographical Society komanso kutsutsidwa ndi Purezidenti Havel ndi ena. ndipo ena amamva ngati chotupa.

Zizindikiro zadziko la Czech Republic ndizizindikiro zazikulu komanso zazing'ono zadziko, mbendera yadziko (republic idalanda mbendera yoyambirira ya Czechoslovakia pambuyo pa kutha kwa federation, popeza Slovakia sinkafuna kugwiritsa ntchito mbendera iyi), muyezo wa purezidenti, chisindikizo cha boma, mitundu ya dziko ndi nyimbo yadziko Kde domov můj. Zizindikiro za boma zikulozera ku miyambo yamayiko (emblem), gulu la a Hussite (mwambi woyimira purezidenti), chitsitsimutso cha dziko (nyimbo) ndi Czechoslovakia (mbendera)