European Union

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European Union (kufotokoza: EU) ndi mgwirizano wa mayiko 28 ku Ulaya, unayamba mu 1957 monga European Economic Community (EEC). Lakhazikitsa malo amodzi azachuma ndi malamulo a ku Ulaya omwe amalola nzika za mayiko a EU kuti azisunthira ndi kugulitsa m'mayiko ena a EU monga momwe amachitira okha. Maiko khumi ndi asanu ndi anayi a maikowa amalinso nawo ndalama zomwezo: euro.

Pangano la Lisbon ndilo pangano laposachedwa lomwe likunena momwe mgwirizanowu ukugwiritsidwira ntchito. Chiwalo chilichonse cha boma chinasainika kuti chinene kuti aliyense adagwirizana ndi zomwe akunena. Chofunika koposa, chimati ntchito (("mphamvu") ogwirizanitsa ayenera kuchitira mamembala ndi ntchito zomwe ayenera kuchita. Mamembala asankha momwe bungwe liyenera kukhalira ndi kuvota kapena kutsutsana.

Cholinga cha EU ndicho kubweretsa mayiko awo omwe akugwirizana nawo ndikulemekeza ufulu wa anthu ndi demokalase. Zimachititsa izi ndi chizoloŵezi chofala cha pasipoti, malamulo wamba okhudza malonda okondana wina ndi mzake, mgwirizano wokhudzana ndi malamulo, ndi mgwirizano wina. Ambiri amodzi amagwiritsa ntchito ndalama zofanana (euro) ndipo ambiri amalola anthu kuyenda kuchokera ku dziko lina kupita kudziko popanda kusonyeza pasipoti.

Mbiri[edit | edit source]

Pambuyo pa nkhondo yachiwiri ya padziko lonse, mayiko a ku Ulaya ankafuna kukhala mwamtendere pamodzi ndi kuthandizana chuma. M'malo molimbana ndi malasha ndi zitsulo, mayiko oyambirira (West) Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, ndi Luxembourg anapanga bungwe limodzi la European Coal and Steel mu 1952.

Mu 1957 mu mzinda wa Italy wa Rome, mayiko omwe adagwirizanitsa nawo adayina pangano lina ndikupanga European Economic Community. Tsopano unali mudzi wa malasha, zitsulo ndi malonda. Kenaka anasintha dzina ku European Community.

Mu 1993, ndi Pangano la Maastricht linasintha dzina lake ku European Union. Tsopano mayiko omwe ali m'bungwe amagwira ntchito pamodzi osati ndale komanso chuma (malasha, zitsulo ndi malonda), komanso ndalama, chilungamo (malamulo), ndi mayiko ena. Ndi mgwirizano wa Schengen, mayiko 22 a EU adatsegula malire awo, kotero kuti tsopano anthu angathe kuyenda kuchokera kudziko lina popanda pasipoti kapena khadi lachinsinsi. Tsopano kale mayiko 16 amembala adasintha ndalama zawo zadziko ndi euro. Mayiko 10 atsopano adakhala mamembala a EU mu 2004, ena awiri adakhala mamembala mu 2007, ndipo 1 ena mu 2013. Lero pali mayiko 28 omwe ali nawo mamembala onse.

Kusuntha kwaulere[edit | edit source]

Munthu yemwe ali nzika ya dziko la European Union akhoza kukhala ndi kugwira ntchito m'mayiko ena 27 omwe alibe chilolezo chogwira ntchito kapena visa. Mwachitsanzo, munthu wina wa ku France akhoza kusamukira ku Greece kukagwira ntchito kumeneko, kapena kuti azikhala komweko, ndipo iye sakusowa chilolezo kuchokera ku ulamuliro ku Greece.

Mofananamo, zopangidwa mu dziko limodzi likhoza kugulitsidwa ku dziko lina lirilonse popanda zilolezo zapadera kapena misonkho yowonjezera. Pachifukwa ichi, mamembalawo amavomereza malamulo pa chitetezo cha mankhwala - akufuna kudziwa kuti mankhwala opangidwa m'dziko lina adzakhala otetezeka ngati akadakhala ngati apangidwa okha.

Brexit[edit | edit source]

Pa June 23, 2016, UK adachita zionetsero zokhuza ngati ziyenera kukhala ku EU kapena kusiya. Ambiri [52% mpaka 48%] akukondedwa kuchoka.[1] Britain kuchoka ku EU nthawi zambiri imatchedwa Brexit.

Boma la UK linayambitsa "Article 50" ya Mgwirizano wa European Union (Mgwirizano wa Lisbon) pa 29 March 2017.[2] Izi zinayambitsa kukambirana ndi mamembala ena a EU potsata. Mndandanda wa zokambiranazi ndi zaka ziwiri, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti UK adzakhalabe membala wa EU mpaka March 2019.

Zolemba[edit | edit source]