Elizabeth II

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Her Majness the Queen, wazaka 81, waku United Kingdom

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; wobadwa 21 Epulo 1926) ndi Mfumukazi yaku United Kingdom ndi madera ena 14 a Commonwealth.[1]

Elizabeth anabadwira ku Mayfair, London, monga mwana woyamba wa Duke ndi Duchess aku York (kenako King George VI ndi Mfumukazi Elizabeth). Abambo ake adakhala pampando wachifumu mu 1936 atalandidwa mchimwene wake, King Edward VIII, ndikupangitsa Elizabeti kukhala wodzikuza. Anaphunzitsidwa payekha kunyumba ndipo anayamba kugwira ntchito za boma panthawi ya nkhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse, akutumikira mu Auxiliary Territorial Service. Mu November 1947, anakwatiwa ndi Philip Mountbatten, yemwe kale anali kalonga wa Greece ndi Denmark, ndipo ukwati wawo unatha zaka 73 mpaka imfa ya Philip mu 2021. Anali ndi ana anayi: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Mfumukazi Yachifumu; Prince Andrew, Duke waku York; ndi Prince Edward, Earl wa Wessex.[2]

Bambo ake atamwalira mu February 1952, Elizabeth, yemwe panthaŵiyo anali ndi zaka 25, anakhala mfumukazi m’mayiko asanu ndi aŵiri odziimira okha a Commonwealth: United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, ndi Ceylon, komanso Mtsogoleri wa Commonwealth. . Elizabeti wakhala akulamulira monga mfumu yoyendetsera malamulo kudzera mukusintha kwakukulu kwa ndale monga Troubles ku Northern Ireland, devolution ku United Kingdom, decolonization of Africa, ndi United Kingdom kulowa mu European Communities ndi kuchoka ku European Union. Chiŵerengero cha madera ake chakhala chikusiyana m’kupita kwa nthaŵi pamene madera akupeza ufulu wodzilamulira, ndipo monga madera ena asanduka malipabuliki. Maulendo ake ambiri akale ndi misonkhano ikuphatikizapo maulendo a boma ku People's Republic of China mu 1986, Russian Federation mu 1994, Republic of Ireland mu 2011, ndi maulendo opita kwa apapa asanu kapena asanu.[3]

Zochitika zazikulu zikuphatikiza kukhazikitsidwa kwa Elizabeti mu 1953 komanso zikondwerero zake za Silver, Golden, Diamond ndi Platinum jubiles mu 1977, 2002, 2012, ndi 2022 motsatana. Elizabeti ndiye mfumu ya ku Britain yomwe yakhala nthawi yayitali kwambiri komanso yolamulira nthawi yayitali, mtsogoleri wadziko wamkazi wanthawi yayitali, mfumu yakale kwambiri komanso yolamulira kwanthawi yayitali, komanso mtsogoleri wakale wadziko komanso wamkulu kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Adakumanapo ndi malingaliro aku Republican nthawi zina ndikudzudzula banja lachifumu, makamaka pambuyo pakusokonekera kwa maukwati a ana ake, annus horribilis wake mu 1992, komanso imfa mu 1997 ya mpongozi wake wakale Diana, Princess of Wales. Komabe, chithandizo chaufumu ku United Kingdom chakhala chokwera kwambiri, monganso kutchuka kwake.[4]

Zolemba[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

  1. Bradford (2012), p. 22; Brandreth, p. 103; Marr, p. 76; Pimlott, pp. 2–3; Lacey, pp. 75–76; Roberts, p. 74
  2. Williamson, p. 205
  3. Brandreth, pp. 108–110
  4. Brandreth, pp. 105–106