Kuchotsa mimba

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Kuchotsa mimba
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
ICD/CIM-10O04 O04
ICD/CIM-9779.6 779.6
DiseasesDB4153
MedlinePlus002912

Mawu akuti kuchotsa mimba akutanthauza moyo wa mwana pochititsa kuti mwanayo achoke kapenaachotsedwe m'chiberekero nthawi yake isanakwane. Nthawi zina mimba imatha kuchoka yakha, ndipo zikatere amati mayi wapita padera. Nthawi zina munthu angasankhe zoti athetse moyo wa mwana wosabadwa ndipo zimenezi zikachitika, ndiye kuti wachotsa mimba. Mawu akuti kuchotsa mimba amagwiritsidwa ntchito pa nthawi imene munthu wachita kusankha yekha kuti athese moyo wa mwana wosabadwa. Ngati madokotala achotsa m'mimba mwa mayi mwana yemwe anatsala pang'ono kubadwa ndipo moyo wa mwanayo wathera pomwepo, amati "achotsa mimba mochedwa."[1]

Chifukwa cha kupita patsogolo kwa ntchito zachipatala, madokotala amatha kuchita opaleshoni kapena kupereka mankhwala kwa mayi woyembekezera kuti mimba ichoke. Mankhwala a mitundu iwiri, omwe ndi mifepristone ndi prostaglandin ndi othandiza kwambiri mofanana ndi opaleshoni pa ndondomeko yoyamba yochotsera mimba.[2][3] Ngakhale kuti kugwiritsira ntchito mankhwala kumathandiza pa ndondomeko yachiwiri yochotsera mimba,[4] opaleshoni ndi yomwe ikuoneka kuti ndi njira yabwino kwambiri.[3] Njira zolera, kuphatikizapo mapilisi ndiponso kachipangizo kotchinga m'chiberekero zingathe kuyamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito munthu akangochotsa mimba.[3] Kuchotsa mimba m'mayiko otukuka kumaonedwa kuti kuli m'gulu la njira zabwino kwambiri zachipatala ngati malamulo a dzikolo kuchotsa mimba.[5][6] Kuchotsa mimba m'njira yovomerezeka ndi achipatala sikukhala ndi mavuta alionse aakulu okhudza kaganizidwe kapena thanzi la munthu.[7] Bungwe Loona Zaumoyo Padziko Lonse likuyesetsa kuti amayi onse padziko lapansili akhale ndi mwayi wotsatira njira zachipatala zosaopsa pochotsa mimba.[8] Kuchotsa mimba m'njira yosatetezeka kumachititsa kuti amayi pafupifupi 47,000 azimwalira ndiponso[7] kuti amayi 5 miliyoni azigonekedwa m'chipatala chaka chilichonse.[9]

Chaka chilichonse, moyo wa ana osabadwa okwana pafupifupi 44 miliyoni umathetsedwa mwa kuchotsa mimba padziko lonse, ndipo theka la anthu amene amachotsa mimbayo amachita zimenezi m'njira yosatetezeka.[10] Koma kuyambira mu 2003 mpaka mu 2008, chiwerengero cha kuchotsa mimba chinasintha pang'ono,[10] pambuyo poti zaka zambiri zadutsa anthu akukanizidwa mwayi wamaphunziro okhudza kulalera ndiponso njira zolererazo zomwe zikupezeka mosavuta tsopano.[11] Template:As of Komanso amayi 40 pa 100 alionse ali ndi mwayi wothetsa moyo wamwana wosabadwa m'njira yovomerezeka ndi lamulo "popanda zoletsa".[12] Komabe, pali zifukwa zina zimene zimachititsa kuti zikhale zosatheka kuthetsa moyo wa ana ena osabadwa.[12]

Anthu anayamba kale kwambiri kuchotsa mbiri. Anthu akhala akutsatira njira zosiyanasiyana pochotsa mimba, monga kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala azitsamba, kugwiritsa ntchito zipangizo zakuthwa, kuzunza mayi kuti abereke mwana wakufa, ndiponso njira za m'midzi ndipo zimenezi zakhala zikuchitika kuyambira kale kwambiri.[13] Zinthu zokhudzana ndi malamulo okhudza kuchotsa mimba, kuchuluka kwa ana osabadwa amene moyo wawo ungathetsedwe, ndponso chikhalidwe ndi chipembedzo zimasiyanasiyana m'madera osiyanasiyananso padzikoli. Zinthu zina zimene zingachititse kuti kuchotsa mimba kukhale kovomerezeka mwalamulo ndi kugonana kwa pachibale, kugwiriridwa, ngati mwana wosabadwa ali ndi mavuto aakulu, mavuto okhudza chisamaliro ndiponso zachuma kapena moyo wa mayi uli pachiopsezo.[14] M'madera ambiri padzikoli anthu kusiyana maganizopotengera zinthu mongachikhalidwe, ndiponso nkhani zokhudza malamulo. Komanso pali anthu amene sagwirizana ndi kuchotsa mimba ndipo amanena kuti mwana wosabadwayo ndi munthu ndipo ali ndi ufulu wokhala moyo ndipo amanena kuti kuchotsa mimba n'chimodzimodzi ndi kupha munthu.[15][16] Koma anthu amene amane amagwirizana ndi olimbikitsa kuchotsa mimba amanena kuti mayi ali ndi ufulu wosankha zochita ndi chilichonse chimene chili m'thupi mwake[17] ndiponso amalimbikitsa ufulu wa anthu onse.[8]

Malifalensi[edit | edit source]

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  6. Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B (Nov 2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.". Contraception 90 (5): 476–479. PMID 25152259. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lohr, P. A.; Fjerstad, M.; Desilva, U.; Lyus, R. (2014). "Abortion". BMJ 348: f7553. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7553. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Organization, World Health (2012). Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (2nd ed. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 8. ISBN 9789241548434. 
  9. Shah, I.; Ahman, E. (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges" (PDF). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 31 (12): 1149–58. PMID 20085681. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.; Shah, I. H.; Åhman, E.; Henshaw, S. K.; Bankole, A. (2012). "Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008" (PDF). The Lancet 379 (9816): 625–632. PMID 22264435. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8. 
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