Njira zolera

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Template:Infobox interventions Mawu akuti kulera, omwe ndi ofanana ndi mawu kuti njira zolera kapena maleredwe, amatanthauza njira zimene zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pofuna kupewa kutenga pakati.[1] Koma kupanga mapulani, kusankha njira zolera, ndi kuzigwiritsira ntchito kumatchedwa mapulani a banja.[2][3] Anthu akhala akugwiritsa ntchito njira zolera kuyambira kale kwambiri, koma njira zothandizadi ndiponso zosaopsa zinayamba kupezeka m'zaka za m'ma 1900.[4] M'zikhalidwe zina, anthu salimbikitsidwa kapena kuloledwa kuti azigwiritsira ntchito njira zolera chifukwa zimaonedwa kuti n'zosemphana ndi chikhalidwe chawo, chipemphedzo chawo kapena maganizo a anthu ambiri m'deralo.[4]

Njira zolera zothandiza kwambiri ndi monga kutseka njira yodutsa mbewu ya abambo ndiponso kutseka njira mbewu ya amayi, kutseka khomo la chiberekeroLupu, ndiponso kuseri kwa khungu. Palinso njira zina monga zokhudza mahomoni ndipo zina mwa izo ndi mapilisi,machubu oika m'kati mwa khungu, maring'i oika kunjira yodutsa chida cha abambo, ndiponso jakisoni. Njira zolera zomwe zimathandiza koma osati kwambiri ndi monga zinthu zotchingira monga makondomu, zotchinga kunjira yodutsa chida cha abambo ndiponso thonje la kulera komanso kuzindikira nthawi imene mayi angatenge pakati. Pali njira zinanso zomwe n'zosadalirika, mongamankhwala opha mbewu ya abambondiponso kuchotsa chida cha abambo asanathire umuna pogonana. Njira yotseka ndi yothandiza kwambiri koma nthawi zambiri zimakhala zosatheka kuti munthu aberekenso; pomwe njira zina zonsezo ubwino wake ndi wakuti munthu angathe kuberekanso akangosiya kuzigwiritsa ntchito.[5] Kugonana m'njira yotetezeka, monga kugwiritsa ntchito makondomu a abambo kapena makondomu a amayi, kungathandizenso kuti mupewe matenda opatsirana pogonana.[6][7] Njira zolera zapangozi zingagwiritsidwe ntchito kuti mayi apewe kutenga pakati ngati papita masiku angapo atagonana ndi mwamuna mosadziteteza.[8] Anthu ena amaona kuti kusagonana ndi aliyense ndi njira yabwino yolera, koma kuphunzitsa munthu kuti asamagonane ndi aliyense kungachititse atsikana ambiri kuti azitenga mimbakumachititsa atsikana kuti azitenga mimba ngati atsikanawo akungouzidwa kuti azikhala odziletsa koma osawapatsa njira zolerazo.[9][10]

Pakati pa atsikana ambiri amene amatenga mimba, zotsatira zake zimakhala zoipa kwambiri. Koma maphunziro akathithi okhudza zakugonana ndiponso kupereka njira zakulera zimathandiza kuti chiwerengero cha mimba zosafunikira chichepe pakata pa atsikana.[11][12] Ngakhale kuti achinyamata angathe kugwiritsira ntchito njira iliyonse ya kulera,[13]njira zomwe zimagwira ntchito kwa nthawi yaitali komanso zosavuta kuzichotsa monga zoika kuseri kwa khungu, Lupu, kapena maring'i oika kunjira yodutsa chida cha abambo, zimathandiza kwambiri kuchepetsa mimba.[12] Mayi akangobereka mwana ndipo sakuyamwitsa kwambiri, angathe kutenganso pakati pakangopita milungu yochepa yokha, yoyambira pa inayi kufika pa 6. Njira zina zolera zingathe kumagwiritsidwa ntchito ngakhale mayi atangobereka kumene, koma angafunikire kudikira kaye, mwina mpaka miyezi 6 kuti ayambe kugwiritsa ntchito njira zina. Kwa amayi amene akuyamwitsa, njira zolera zopanda mahomini osokoneza mkaka wa m'mabere zimakhala bwino kuzigwiritsa ntchito poyerekezera ndi mapilisi. Ndipo kwa amayi amene afika msinkhu wosiya kusamba, zimakhala bwino kuti apitirize kugwiritsa ntchito njira zolera kwa chaka chathunthu kuchokera pamene anasamba komaliza.[13]

Amayi pafupifupi 222 miliyoni omwe amafuna atapewa kutenga pakati m'mayiko omwe akukwera kumene, sagwiritsa ntchito njiira zamakono zolera.[14][15] Kugwiritsira ntchito njira zolera m'mayiko omwe akukwera kumene kwathandiza kuti kuchepetsaimfa zokhudzana ndi ubereki ndi 40 peresenti (imfa pafupifupi 270,000 zinapewedwa mu 2008), ndipo njirazi zikanathandiza kuti kupewa imfa zofika pa 70 peresenti zikanakhala kuti aliyense akuzipeza mosavuta.[16][17] Popeza kugwiritsira ntchito njira zolera kumathandiza kuti mayi asamatenge pakati pafupipafupi, zimathandiza mayiyo azibereka ana athanzi komanso kumachepetsa mpata woti anawo angamwalire pobadwa kapena akangobadwa kumene.[16] M'mayiko olemera, chuma chimene amayi amapeza, katundu,kulemera kwa thupi laawo, komanso sukulu zimene ana awo amapita ndiponso umoyo wawo, zimakhala zabwino chifukwa choti amapeza mosavuta njira zolera.[18] Kugwiritsira ntchito njira zolera kumathandizanso kuti chuma chikwere chifukwa banja limakhala ndi ana ochepa oti n'kumawasamalira, amayi ambiri amagwira ntchito, ndipo zinthu zofunika pamoyo zimakhala zosavuta kuzipeza.[18][19]

Malifalensi[edit | edit source]

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