Marco Polo

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Mosai wa Marco Polo, Nyumba Yaikulu ya Municipal Genoa: Palazzo Grimaldi Doria-Tursi

Marco Polo (1254-January 8, 1324)[1] anali wochita malonda ndi ku Italy.[2] Iye anali mmodzi mwa anthu oyambirira a ku Ulaya kufufuza East Asia. Ofufuza ena ambiri, kuphatikizapo Christopher Columbus, adamuyang'ana. Anatha kulankhula zinenero zinayi. Marco Polo ankadziwika ndi buku lakuti Travels of Marco Polo komwe ankalankhula za Asia buku lomwe linafotokozera a ku Ulaya chuma ndi kukula kwakukulu kwa China, likulu lake Peking, ndi mizinda ina ndi Asia.

Anaphunzira ntchito yamalonda kuchokera kwa bambo ake ndi amalume ake, Niccolò ndi Maffeo, omwe anadutsa ku Asia ndipo anakumana ndi Kublai Khan. Mu 1269, adabwerera ku Venice kudzakumana ndi Marco kwa nthawi yoyamba. Onse atatuwa adayamba ulendo wopita ku Asia, atabweranso zaka 24 kuti apeze Venice nkhondo ndi Genoa; Marco anaikidwa m'ndende ndipo analamula nkhani zake kuti apite naye. Anamasulidwa mu 1299, adakhala wamalonda wolemera, anakwatira, ndipo adali ndi ana atatu. Anamwalira mu 1324 ndipo anaikidwa m'manda ku tchalitchi cha San Lorenzo ku Venice.

Moyo[edit | sintha gwero]

Chiyambi cha banja[edit | sintha gwero]

Marco Polo anabadwa mu 1254 ku Republic of Venice.[3][4][5][6] Tsiku lake lenileni ndi malo ake obadwira ndi osadziwika bwino. Akatswiri ena a mbiriyakale adanena kuti anabadwa pa September 15 koma tsiku limenelo silovomerezedwa ndi maphunziro ambiri. Malo a birthplace a Marco Polo amadziwika kuti Venice, komanso amasiyana pakati pa Constantinople ndi chilumba cha Korčula. Pali mkangano wosonyeza ngati banja la Polo liri Chiyambi cha Venetian, monga momwe zolemba zakale za Venetian zimawaonera kuti ndizochokera ku Dalmatian. Kuperewera kwa umboni kumapangitsa kuti Korčula awonongeke (mwinamwake pansi pa mphamvu ya Ramusio) ngati malo obadwira mwakuya, ndipo ngakhale akatswiri ena achiCroatia amalingalira kuti ndizokonzedwa mwachilungamo.

Amayenda[edit | sintha gwero]

Polo anapita ulendo wazaka 24 ku China pamodzi ndi abambo ake ndi amalume ake pa nthawi ya mafumu a Mongol. Anachoka ku Venice ali ndi zaka 17 pa ngalawa yomwe inadutsa nyanja ya Mediterranean, Ayas, Tabriz ndi Kerman. Kenako anadutsa Asia mpaka kukafika ku Beijing. Ali panjira kumeneko, amayenera kupita kudera lamapiri komanso kudutsa m'mapululu akuopsya, kudutsa m'madera otentha ndi malo ozizira omwe anali ozizira. Anatumikira ku khoti la Kublai Khan kwa zaka 17. Anachoka ku Far East ndipo anabwerera ku Venice ndi nyanja. Panali odwala pabwalo ndipo anthu okwera 600 ndi ogwira ntchito ogwira ntchitoyo anamwalira ndipo ena amanena kuti achifwamba anaukira. Komabe, Marco Polo anapulumuka zonsezo.

Akatswiri ena amakhulupirira kuti pamene Marco Polo anapita ku China, sanapite kumalo ena onse omwe adafotokozedwa m'buku lake. Anabweretsanso Zakudyazi kuchokera ku China ndi ku Italy anabwera ndi kukula ndi mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana ndipo anazitcha pasitala. Polo anabwerera ku Venice ali ndi chuma monga njovu, jade, zokongoletsera, zikopa ndi silika. Bambo ake adakhoma ndalama ndikugula sitima. Iye anakhala wolemera chifukwa cha malonda ake kufupi ndi East.

"Travels of Marco Polo" ("Maulendo a Marco Polo")[edit | sintha gwero]

Nkhani yaikulu : The Travels of Marco Polo

Posakhalitsa Polo atabwerera kuchokera kuulendo wake adamenyana ndi Genoa, adagwidwa ndi kuikidwa m'ndende. Pamene anali m'ndende, adasangalalira ndi mkaidi mnzanga, Rusticello, yemwe anali wolemba maukwati ndi mabuku. Anauza wolemba za zochitika zake zonse, zomwe zinakhala buku lotchedwa The Travels of Marco Polo. Buku lofalitsidwa linalembedwa ndi Rustichello da Pisa, pogwiritsa ntchito zomwe Polo anamuuza. Iyo inadzakhala yotchuka mu Europe yense. M'bukuli adati ufumu wa Kublai Khan wolemera watsopano unali ndi positi. Anayankhulanso za anthu achi China. China idagwiritsa ntchito mapepala omwe anali opangidwa kuchokera ku makungwa a mulberry. Dzina la Marco Polo linali Marco Il Milione, chifukwa cha kholo lake lotchedwa Emilione. Iye anali kwenikweni wolemera.

Imfa[edit | sintha gwero]

Mu 1323, Polo anali atagona, chifukwa cha matenda.[7] Pa January 8, 1324, ngakhale kuti madokotala ankayesetsa kuti amulandire, Polo anali pa bedi lake lakufa.[8] Polemba ndi kutsimikizira chifunirocho, banja lake linafunsa Giovanni Giustiniani, wansembe wa San Procolo. Mkazi wake, Donata, ndi ana ake aakazi atatu adasankhidwa ndi iye ngati co-executrices. Mpingo unali ndi ufulu ndi lamulo ku gawo la malo ake; adavomereza izi ndipo adalamula kuti ndalama zowonjezera zikhopedwe kumsonkhano wa San Lorenzo, komwe adafuna kuikidwa m'manda. Anamasuliranso Petro, mtumiki wa Tartar, yemwe mwina adatsagana naye kuchokera ku Asia, ndipo amene Polo anam'patsa ndalama 100 za dinari ya Venetian.

Anagawaniza chuma chake chonse, kuphatikizapo katundu wambiri, pakati pa anthu, zipembedzo, ndi gulu lililonse limene anali nalo.[8] Analembanso-ngongole zambiri kuphatikizapo liwu 300 kuti mpongozi wake anali ndi ngongole kwa iye, ndipo ena ankakhala nawo pamsonkhano wa San Giovanni, San Paolo wa Order of Preachers, ndi mtsogoleri dzina lake Friar Benvenuto.[8] Anauza msilikali 220 kuti amupatse Giovanni Giustiniani ntchito yake monga mlembi komanso mapemphero ake.[9]

Chifunirocho sichinayinidwe ndi Polo, koma chinatsimikiziridwa ndi lamulo loyenera loti "signum manus", limene testator anayenera kukhudza chilembacho kuti chikhale chovomerezeka.[10][11] Chifukwa cha lamulo la Venetian loti tsiku limatha dzuwa litalowa, tsiku lenileni la imfa ya Marco Polo silingadziŵike, koma malinga ndi akatswiri ena amati kunali pakati pa kutentha kwa dzuwa pa January 8 ndi 9, 1324.[12] Biblioteca Marciana, yomwe imagwira buku loyambirira la pangano lake, amatsimikizira panganoli pa January 9, 1323, ndipo amapereka tsiku la imfa yake nthawi ina mu June 1324.

Cholowa[edit | sintha gwero]

Ofufuza ena ochepa a ku Ulaya anali atapita kale ku China, monga Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, koma buku la Polo linatanthauza kuti ulendo wake unali woyamba kudziwika. Christopher Columbus anauziridwa mokwanira ndi Polo kufotokoza za Far East kuti afune kudzachezera maiko awo; Buku la bukhuli linali pakati pa zinthu zake, ndi zolembedwa pamanja. Bento de Góis, lopangidwa ndi zolembedwa za Polo za ufumu wachikristu kummawa, anayenda makilomita 6,400 m'zaka zitatu ku Central Asia. Iye sanapeze ufumu koma anamaliza ulendo wake ku Great Wall of China mu 1605, kutsimikizira kuti Cathay ndi zomwe Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) adatcha "China".

Zolemba[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. Bergreen 2007, p. 340–342.
  2. Benedetto, Luigi Foscolo (1965). "Marco Polo, Il Milione". Istituto Geografico DeAgostini (in Italian).
  3. "Marco Polo – Exploration – HISTORY.com". Retrieved January 9, 2017.
  4. "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Marco Polo (c.1254 - 1324)". Retrieved January 9, 2017.
  5. William Tait, Christian Isobel Johnstone (1843), Tait's Edinburgh magazine, Volume 10, Edinburgh
  6. Hinds, Kathryn (2002), Venice and Its Merchant Empire, New York
  7. Bergreen 2007, p. 339.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Bergreen 2007, p. 340.
  9. Bergreen 2007, p. 340–341.
  10. Bergreen 2007, p. 341.
  11. Biblioteca Marciana, the institute that holds Polo's original copy of his testament. Venezia.sbn.it
  12. Bergreen 2007, p. 342.