Meningitis

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Matenda oumitsa khosi ndi matenda amene amayamba chifukwa cha kutupa khungu limene limakutira bongo ndiponso mnyewa waukulu wochoka ku bongo, ndipo kutupa kotereku kukachitika kumatchedwa meningesi.[1] Zizindikiro zofala kwambiri za matendawa ndi kutentha thupi, kupweteka kwa mutu ndiponso kuuma kwa khosi. Zizindikiro zinanso zingakhale monga kusokonezeka maganizo kapena bongo kusiya kugwira ntchito moyenera, kusanza, ndiponso kudana kwambiri ndi kuwala kapena phokoso. Ana omwe ali ndi matendawa nthawi zambiri zosagwirizana kwenikweni ndi matendawa, monga kunyong'onyeka, kuwodzera, ndiponso kukana kudya.[2] Koma ngati tizilonda tatuluka, zingasonyeze kuti munthuyo ali ndi mtundu winawake wa matenda oumitsa khosi; monga, matenda oumitsa khosi omwe amayambitsidwa ndi bakiteriya wa meningococcal.[1][3]

Kutupa kwa khungu lokuta bongo ndi mnyewa waukulu kumachititsidwa ndi mavailasi, mabakiteriya, ngakhalenso tizilombo tina, ndipo nthawi zina mwa apo ndi apo, kumatha kuyambitsidwanso ndi mankhwala a kuchipatala.[4] Matenda oumitsa khosi akhoza kukhala oopsa kwambiri makamaka ngati khungu lomwe latupalo lili pafupi kwambiri ndi malo amene bongo ndi mnyewa waukulu zalumikizana, ndipo zoterezi zikachitika, wodwalayo amayenera kulandira thandizo la chipatala mwamsanga.[1][5] Ndipo njira ya kuchipatala yoyeza timadzi ta mkati mwa msana imathandiza madokotala kudziwa ngati munthu ali ndi matenda oumitsa khosi kapena ayi.[2] Kuti achite zimenezi, madokotala amabaya jakisoni kumsana m'munsi mwa fupi la khosi n'kutenga timadzi tomwe timakuta khungu lophimba bongo ndi mnyewa waukulu. Ndiyeno amayeza timadzite ndi makina oyezera.[5]

Anthu angathe kupewa mitundu ina ya matendawa ngati atalandira katemera wa meningococcal, wa masagwidwi, wa chibayo, ndiponso katemera wa Hib.[1] Ndipo nthawi zina zimathandiza ngati anthu omwe akuoneka kuti angathe kutenga matendawa mosavuta atapatsidwa mankhwala olimbana ndi tizilombo ta matendawa.[2] Thandizo loyambirira kwa munthu amene akudwala kwambiri matendawa lingakhale kumupatsa mankhwala olimbana ndi mabakiteriya ndipo nthawi zinanso mankhwala olimbana ndi mavailasi.[2][6] Anthu omwe akudwala kwambiri matendawa angapatsidwe mankhwala la corticosteroids omwe amathandiza thandiza kuti khungu lokuta bongo ndi mnyewa waukulu lisatupe.[5][3] Munthu yemwe ali ndi matenda oumisa khosi akapanda kulandira thandizo mwachangu, angakhalenso ndi mavuto ena aakulu monga kugontha n'khutu, khunyu, madzi kuunjikana mubongo, kapenanso mavuto ena a mubongo.[1][3]

Mu 2013 matenda oumisa khosi anagwira anthu pafupfupi 16 miliyoni.[7] Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti anthu 303,000 amwalire ndi matendawa, omwe ndi anthu ocheperapo oyerekezera ndi anthu 464,000 omwe anamwalira ndi matendawa mu 1990.[8] Odwala akalandira thandizo loyenerera, ndi anthu 15 okha pa 100 aliwonse omwe angamwalire ndi matendawa.[2] Chaka chilichonse, mliri wa matendawa umabuka cha mu December ndi June m'mayiko kumunsi kwa chipululu cha Sahara ku Africa dera lomwe limadziwika kuti dera la matenda oumisa khosi.[9] Miliri ina yocheperapo ya matendawa imabukanso m'madera osiyanasiyana padziko lapansili.[9] Dzina la Chingelezi la matendawa meningitis ndipo linachokera ku mawa a Chigiriki akuti μῆνιγξ méninx, omwe amatanthauza "khungu" kapena "chikopa" ndipo mawu a zachipatala amene anawonjezeredwa ku dzinali akuti -itis, amatanthauza "kutupa".[10][11]

Malifalensi[edit | sintha gwero]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Sáez-Llorens X, McCracken GH (June 2003). "Bacterial meningitis in children". Lancet. 361 (9375): 2139–48. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13693-8. PMID 12826449.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Bacterial Meningitis". CDC. April 1, 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 van de Beek D, de Gans J, Tunkel AR, Wijdicks EF (January 2006). "Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (1): 44–53. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052116. PMID 16394301.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. Ginsberg L (March 2004). "Difficult and recurrent meningitis" (PDF). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 75 Suppl 1 (90001): i16–21. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.034272. PMC 1765649. PMID 14978146.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Tunkel AR; Hartman BJ; Kaplan SL; et al. (November 2004). "Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis" (PDF). Clinical Infectious Diseases. 39 (9): 1267–84. doi:10.1086/425368. PMID 15494903.
  6. "Viral Meningitis". CDC. November 26, 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  7. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, Collaborators (22 August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. PMID 26063472.
  8. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Meningococcal meningitis Fact sheet N°141". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  10. Mosby's pocket dictionary of medicine, nursing & health professions (6th. ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier. 2010. p. traumatic meningitis. ISBN 9780323066044.
  11. Liddell HG, Scott R (1940). "μήνιγξ". A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press.