Nkhondo Yadziko Lonse

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Gallipoli Campaign

Nkhondo Yadziko Yonse (World War I, WWI kapena WW1), yomwe imadziwikanso kuti nkhondo yoyamba yapadziko lonse kapena nkhondo yaikulu, inali Nkhondo yapadziko lonse yochokera ku Ulaya yomwe idachokera pa 28 July 1914 mpaka 11 November 1918. " nkhondo zonse "zoposa 70 miliyoni zankhondo, kuphatikizapo 60 miliyoni a ku Ulaya, zinasonkhanitsidwa mu nkhondo yaikulu kwambiri m'mbiri yonse. Msilikali oposa mamiliyoni asanu ndi anayi ndi anthu asanu ndi awiri (7 miliyoni) omwe adaphedwa chifukwa cha nkhondo (kuphatikizapo ophedwa ndi anthu ambirimbiri), chiwerengero cha anthu ophwanya malamulo chochulukirapo chochulukitsidwa ndi makina atsopano ogwira ntchito zamakono ndi mafakitale komanso zovuta zomwe zimayambitsa nkhondo . Imeneyi ndi imodzi mwa nkhondo zoopsa kwambiri m'mbiri komanso zochitika zazikulu zandale, kuphatikizapo Revolutions a 1917-1923, m'mitundu yambiri yomwe ikukhudzidwa. Mpikisano wosathetsa kumapeto kwa nkhondoyo unayambitsa kumayambiriro kwa Nkhondo Yachiwiri Yadziko Lonse‎ zaka makumi awiri ndi chimodzi pambuyo pake.

Pofika chaka cha 1914, ulamuliro wa Ulaya unagawanika kukhala magwirizano awiri: Triple Entente, yomwe ili ndi France, Russia ndi Britain ndi Triple Alliance 1882 ya Germany, Austria-Hungary ndi Italy. Bungwe la Triple Alliance linali kutetezeka makamaka m'chilengedwe, kulola Italy kuti asatuluke pankhondo mu 1914, pamene zambiri mwaziganizozo zinali zosagwirizana ndi zotsutsana ndi ena; Mwachitsanzo, dziko la Italy linakhazikitsanso bungwe la Triple Alliance mu 1902 koma linagwirizana mwachinsinsi ndi France kuti likhale lopanda nkhondo ngati linachitidwa ndi Germany. Nkhondo itakula, Entente inaonjezera Italy, Japan, ndipo pomalizira pake United States inakhazikitsa Mphamvu za Allied, pamene Ottoman ndi Bulgaria linalumikizana ndi Germany ndi Austria kuti apange Central Power.

Kuyambira[edit | edit source]

Mu bungwe la Black Hand, munthu mmodzi amene anathandiza kwambiri ku Serbia adatumiza amuna kuti akaphe Archduke Franz Ferdinand waku Austria. Onsewo adalephera kumupha ndi mabomba pamene adadutsa gulu lalikulu koma mmodzi wa amunawa, wophunzira wa ku Serbian dzina lake Gavrilo Princip, anamuwombera iye ndi mkazi wake wokhala ndi pisitoma.

Austria-Hungary inati mlandu wa Serbia wapha. Germany inathandizira Austria-Hungary ndipo idalonjeza zothandizira pokhapokha ngati idzayamba nkhondo. Austria-Hungary inatumiza ku Russia Ultimatum ku Serbia, ikulemba ndondomeko 10 yovuta kwambiri, mwina chifukwa chakuti inali kufuna chifukwa choyambitsa nkhondo. Serbia inavomereza zinthu zambiri mwazinthu khumi pa mndandanda, koma osati onse. Austria-Hungary kenako inauza nkhondo ku Serbia. Izi mwamsanga zinatsogolera nkhondo yonse. Ogwirizana a mayiko onse awiriwa adayamba nawo nkhondo pankhondo.

Russia adagonjetsa nkhondo kumbali ya Serbia chifukwa anthu a ku Serbia anali Asilavic, monga Russia, ndi maiko a Slavic adagwirizana kuti athandizane ngati atagonjetsedwa. Popeza dziko la Russia ndilo dziko lalikulu, anafunika kusuntha asilikali pafupi ndi nkhondo, koma Germany ankaopa kuti asilikali a ku Russia adzaukira Germany. Russia sankakonda Germany chifukwa cha zinthu zomwe Germany anachita kale kuti zikhale zolimba. Germany inalengeza nkhondo ku Russia, ndipo inayamba kupanga ndondomeko yomwe inakhazikitsidwa kale kwambiri kuti isamenyane ndi nkhondo ku Ulaya. Chifukwa chakuti Germany ili pakati pa Ulaya, dziko la Germany silinayende kum'mawa kupita ku Russia popanda kudzifooketsa kumadzulo, ku France. Ndondomeko ya Germany inagonjetsa msangamsanga dziko la France kumadzulo kwa dziko la Russia asanayambe kukamenyana, ndipo kenako anasunthira asilikali ake kum'maŵa kukakumana ndi Russia. Germany sakanatha kulowera ku France mwachindunji, chifukwa dziko la France lidaika malire ambiri m'malire, choncho Germany inadutsa dziko loyandikana nalo la Belgium kuti lidutse dziko la France kudzera m'malire a France ndi Belgium. Great Britain adagwirizana nawo nkhondo chifukwa Great Britain inavomereza kuthandiza Belgium ngati wina aliyense adamuukira.

Pasanapite nthaŵi yaitali Ulaya ambiri anayamba kuchita nawo mbali.

Germany ndi Russia[edit | edit source]

Germany inagwirizana ndi Austria-Hungary. Russia inkagwirizana ndi Serbia. Boma la Germany linkachita mantha chifukwa chakuti Austria-Hungary inagonjetsa Serbia, Russia idzaukira Austria ndi Hungary kuthandiza Serbia. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, dziko la Germany linkaona kuti liyenera kuthandiza Austria-Hungary pomenyana ndi Russia choyamba, isanafike ku Austria ndi Hungary.

Vuto linali lakuti Russia nayenso anali mabwenzi ndi France, ndipo Ajeremani ankaganiza kuti French akhoza kuwaukira kuti athandize Russia. Kotero a Germany anaganiza kuti apambane nkhondoyo ngati atagonjetsa France poyamba, ndipo mofulumira. Amatha kusonkhanitsa mofulumira kwambiri. Iwo anali ndi mndandanda wa amuna onse omwe anayenera kulowetsa usilikali, ndi kumene amuna awo ankayenera kupita, ndi nthawi za sitimayi iliyonse yomwe ikanyamula amuna awo kumalo komwe iwo akanayenera kumenyana nawo. France anali kuchita chinthu chomwecho, koma sankakhoza kuchita mwamsanga. Ajeremani anaganiza kuti ngati atangoyamba kulamulira dziko la France, akhoza 'kugogoda France' pankhondoyi isanafike Russia ikawaukira.

Russia inali ndi gulu lalikulu, koma Germany idaganiza kuti zingatenge masabata sikisi kuti asonkhane ndi nthawi yayitali asanamenyane ndi Mphamvu Zaukulu. Icho sichinali chowona, chifukwa Asilikali Achi Russia anaphatikizidwa mu masiku khumi. Komanso, anthu a ku Russia anayenda mpaka ku Austria.

Pambuyo pake[edit | edit source]

Nkhondo itatha, Ajeremani anayenera kuvomereza Chipangano cha Versailles. Dziko la Germany linayenera kulipira pafupifupi $ 31.5 biliyoni. Ayeneranso kutenga udindo pa nkhondo. Mbali imodzi ya mgwirizanowu inati mayiko a dziko lapansi ayenera kubwera palimodzi kuti apange bungwe lapadziko lonse kuti athetse nkhondo kuti zisadzachitike. Bungwe ili linatchedwa League of Nations. Bungwe la United States silinagwirizane ndi izi, ngakhale kuti linali lingaliro la pulezidenti waku United States, Woodrow Wilson. Woodrow Wilson anayesera kuuza anthu a ku America kuti ayenera kuvomereza, koma United States sanavomereze nawo League of Nations. Mavuto ndi Panganoli ku Germany adzapititsa ku nkhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse.

Zolemba[edit | edit source]