North America

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North America ndi kontinenti mwathunthu mwa kumpoto kwa dziko lapansi ndipo pafupifupi mwathunthu mu Western dziko lapansi. Iwo akhoza katengedwa kukhala munthu kumpoto subcontinent a ku America. [1] Izo mphepete kumpoto ndi Arctic Ocean, kum'mawa ndi Atlantic Ocean, kumadzulo ndi kum'mwera ndi Pacific Ocean, ndi kum'mwera ndi South America ndi ku Caribbean Sea.

North America linatenga malo za 24.709.000 sikweya makilomita (9,540,000 linali lalikulu kwambiri), za 16,5% a dziko lapansi a dziko deralo za 4.8% ake onse padziko. North America ndi lachitatu yaikulu Africa ndi dera, kutsatira Asia ndi Africa, [2] ndi wachinayi ndi anthu pambuyo Asia, Africa, ndipo Europe. [3]

Mu 2013, anthu ake anali pafupifupi 565 miliyoni mu 23 palokha limati, kapena 7.5% ya padziko lonse, ngati pafupi zilumba (makamaka Caribbean) aphatikizidwa.

North America kunatha ake oyambirira anthu m'masiku otsiriza glacial nthawi, kudzera akuwoloka Bering dziko mlatho. Otchedwa Paleo-Indian nthawi atengedwa kuti unakhala mpaka 10,000 zapitazo (chiyambi cha chachikale chinkawavuta kapena Meso-Indian nthawi). The Classic siteji chimakwirira roughly 6 kwa zaka 13. The Pre-Columbian nyengo inathera ndi kufika a ku Ulaya pa Age of Unapezekera ndi Early Modern nthawi. Masiku ano chikhalidwe ndi mitundu dongosolo kusonyeza mtundu wa ankachita pakati European atsamunda, anthu ameneŵa, African akapolo ndi ana awo. European makhalidwe ndi mphamvu zambiri mu kumpoto m'madera a kontinenti pamene zamakolo ndi African makhalidwe ali ndi mphamvu kum'mwera. Chifukwa cha mbiri ya colonialism ambiri North America kulankhula m'Chingelezi, m'Chisipanishi kapena French ndi anthu ndi imati ambiri kusonyeza Western miyambo.

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Zigawo

Onaninso[edit | edit source]

Mwachirengedwe ndi North America ambiri m'madera ndi subregions. Zinthu monga chikhalidwe, chuma, ndi malo m'madera. Economic m'madera zinthu popangidwa ndi malonda blocs, monga North America Trade mgwirizano bloc ndi Central America Trade mgwirizano. Zinenero ndi chikhalidwe, dziko Africa akhoza kugawidwa mmagawo Anglo-America ndi Latin America. Anglo-America zikuphatikizapo ambiri kumpoto kwa America, Belize, ndi Caribbean zilumba ndi Chingelezi anthu (kuti kum'mwera dziko mabungwe monga Louisiana ndi Quebec, ndi Francophone mu zikuchokera).

Kum'mwera North America wapangidwa ndi awiri m'madera. Awa Central America ndi ku Caribbean. [19] [20] The kumpoto kwa Africa kupitiriza anazindikira m'madera ena. Mosiyana wamba tanthawuzo la "North America", zomwe amanena yense, mawu akuti "North America" ​​amagwiritsidwanso ntchito ponena Canada, Mexico, ndi United States, ndi Greenland. [9] [10] [11 ] [12] [21]

Mawu akuti kumpoto America amatanthauza kumpoto ambiri m'mayiko ndi m'madera North America, Canada, ndi United States, Greenland, Bermuda, ndi St. Pierre ndi Miquelon. [22] [23] Ngakhale kawirikawiri ntchito, [tikalemba anafunika] mawu akuti Middle America osati kusokonezedwa ndi kumadzulo chapakati pa dziko United States-magulu m'madera a ku Central America, ku Caribbean, ndi Mexico. [24]

Yaikulu mayiko a Africa, Canada ndi United States, alinso bwino kumatanthauza ndipo anazindikira m'madera. Pa nkhani ya Canada awa ndi British Columbia Coast, Canada minda, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, ndi kumpoto Canada. Chigawo alinso ambiri subregions. Mu nkhani ya United States - ndipo malinga ndi US Census Bureau matanthauzo - kudera ndi: New England, Mid-Atlantic, East North pakati States, West North pakati States, South Atlantic States, South East pakati States, South West chapakati States, Mountain States, ndi Pacific States. Zigawo nawo pakati pa mayiko awiriwa zinaphatikizapo Great Lakes Region. Megalopolises nawonso unali pakati pa mayiko awiriwa pa nkhani ya Pacific chakumadzulo ndi Great Lakes Megaregion.

Climate[edit | edit source]

North America map of Köppen climate classification.svg

North America ndi lalikulu kwambiri Africa chimene chimaposa cha Arctic Circle, ndipo dziko. Greenland, pamodzi ndi Canada chishango, ndi Titafika ndi pafupifupi kutentha kuyambira pakati pa 10 ° C 20 ° C madigiri, koma chapakati Greenland wapangidwa ndi waukulu kwambiri ayezi pepala. Izi Titafika chimachokera mu Canada, koma malire limatha pafupi ndi miyala kumapiri (komabe lili Alaska) ndipo pamapeto a ku Canada Shield, pafupi ndi Great Lakes. Climate kumadzulo kwa Cascades akunenedwa kuzizira nyengo pafupifupi mainchesi 20 mvula. [56] Climate mu nyanja California limafotokoza kuti Mediterranean, ndi pafupifupi kutentha m'mizinda ngati San Francisco kuyambira pakati pa 57 ndi 70 m'kupita kwa chaka. [57] Anatambasula ku East Coast kum'mawa kwa North Dakota, ndipo anatambasula mpaka Kansas, ndi America-chinyezi nyengo osonyeza zovuta nyengo, ndi yambiri ya pachaka mvula, ndi malo monga New York City pafupifupi mainchesi 50. [ 58] Kuyambira pa kum'mwera kwa dziko la America-chinyezi nyengo ndi anatambasula ku Gulf of Mexico (pomwe Ukuimira kum'mawa theka la Texas) ndi oyandikana nyengo. M'derali ali wettest mizinda contiguous US ndi chaka mvula kufika 67 mainchesi mu Mobile, Alabama. [59] Anatambasula ku malire a America chinyezi ndi oyandikana nyengo, ndi kupita kumadzulo kwa Cascades Sierra Nevada, kum'mwera kwa kum'mwera wa durango, kumpoto kumalire ndi Titafika nyengo, ndi steppe / chipululu nyengo ndi driest nyengo mu US Cities ngati Cheyenne, Wyoming kupeza mwapang'ono 3 mainchesi mvula chaka chilichonse. [60] [61]

Zinenero[edit | edit source]

Wamphamvu zinenero North America ndi m'Chingelezi, m'Chisipanishi ndi French. Denmark ndi maganizo Greenland limodzi Chigirinilandi, ndi Dutch chimalankhulidwa limodzi zinenero mu Dutch Caribbean. Mawu akuti Anglo-America ntchito za anglophone mayiko a ku America: ndicho Canada (kumene English ndi French ndi omasuliridwa boma) ndi United States, komanso nthawi zina Belize ndi mbali ya kumadera otentha, makamaka Commonwealth Caribbean. Latin America amatanthauza ena a ku America (zambiri kum'mwera kwa United States) kumene Romance m'zinenero, opangidwa kuchokera ku Latin, a Spain ndi Portugal (koma French kulankhula mayiko Sichifukwa anaphatikizapo) amachuluka: lina Union wa Central America ( koma nthawi Belize), mbali ya Caribbean (osati Dutch-, English-, kapena French olankhula m'madera), Mexico, ndipo ambiri South America (kupatula Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana (FR), ndi Falkland Islands ( UK)).

Chifulenchi wakhala mbiri anachita mbali yofunika kwambiri mu North America ndipo tsopano akuzisunga lenileni pamaso m'madera ena. Canada ndi ukumu nzeru. French ndicho chinenero cha Province wa Quebec, kumene 95% ya anthu amalankhula ngati mwina wawo woyamba kapena wachiwiri chinenero, ndipo omasuliridwa boma ndi English mu Province cha New Brunswick. Other French olankhula locales zimaphatikizapo Province wa Ontario (chinenero ndi English, koma pali anthu pafupifupi 600,000 Franco-Ontarians), ndi Province wa Manitoba (omasuliridwa boma monga de A jure ndi English), ndi French West Indies ndipo Saint- Pierre neri Miquelon, komanso US boma la Louisiana, komwe French kungatithandizenso chinenero. Haiti ali nawo ndi gulu zochokera m'mbiri kucheza koma Haitians kulankhula onse Creole ndi French. Mofananamo, French ndi French Antillean Creole chimalankhulidwa Saint Lucia ndi Commonwealth wa Dominica limodzi English.

Chikhalidwe[edit | edit source]

Canada ndi United States nafenso zikhalidwe ndi miyambo monga mayiko anali kale British ankawalamulira. A wamba chikhalidwe ndi chuma msika zachitika pakati pa mitundu iwiri chifukwa choti chuma ndi mbiri anzathu. Greenland magawo ena chikhalidwe kugwirizana ndi anthu ameneŵa a Canada koma ankaona Masewerera a Nordic ndi cholimba Denmark ubale chifukwa zaka za kulamulira ndi Denmark. Amalankhula Chisipanishi North America amauza wamba akale monga kale Spanish ankawalamulira. Mu Mexico ndi ku Central America kumene chitukuko ngati Maya anayamba, zamakolo anthu kusunga miyambo kudutsa masiku malire. Central America ndi ku Spain olankhula Caribbean mitundu mbiri anali ndi zambiri zofanana chifukwa malo moyandikana.

Kumpoto Mexico, makamaka m'mizinda ya Monterrey, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, ndi Mexicali, ali kwambiri kutengera chikhalidwe ndi moyo wa United States. A takambiranazi mizinda Monterrey wakhala amatengedwa kwambiri Chimerika mzinda North America. [83] Immigration ku United States ndi Canada akhala kwambiri lingaliro la mitundu yambiri pafupi ndi malire a kum'mwera a US. The Anglophone Caribbean limati achitira umboni Kutha kwa Ufumu wa Britain ndi chikoka pa chigawo, ndi kusinthanitsa ndi chuma chikoka cha kumpoto kwa America. Mu Anglophone Caribbean. Ichi mwina chifukwa cha anthu ochepa a Chingelezi Caribbean mayiko, ndiponso chifukwa ambiri mwa iwo ndi anthu dziko lina kuposa anthu otsalira kunyumba. Commons-logo.svg North America