Starlink

From Wikipedia

Starlink ndi gulu la nyenyezi la satana pa intaneti lomwe limayendetsedwa ndi SpaceX, lomwe limapereka mwayi wofikira pa intaneti pa satellite kumayiko 40. Ikufunanso ntchito yapadziko lonse lapansi ya mafoni am'manja pambuyo pa 2023. SpaceX idayamba kukhazikitsa masatilaiti a Starlink mu 2019. Pofika Seputembara 2022, Starlink ili ndi ma satelayiti ang'onoang'ono opitilira 3,000 opangidwa mochuluka mu low Earth orbit (LEO),[5] omwe amalumikizana ndi malo omwe adasankhidwa. transceivers. Starlink imapereka mwayi wopezeka pa intaneti kwa olembetsa opitilira 500,000 kuyambira Juni 2022.

Malo opangira ma satellite a SpaceX ku Redmond, Washington amakhala ndi magulu ofufuza a Starlink, chitukuko, kupanga, ndi ma orbit control. Mtengo wa projekiti yazaka khumi yopangira, kumanga, ndi kutumiza gulu la nyenyezilo akuti ndi SpaceX mu Meyi 2018 kukhala osachepera $ 10 biliyoni. Mu February 2017, zolemba zinasonyeza kuti SpaceX ikuyembekeza ndalama zoposa $ 30 biliyoni pofika 2025 kuchokera ku gulu la nyenyezi la satellite, pamene ndalama zochokera ku bizinesi yake yoyambitsa zikuyembekezeka kufika $ 5 biliyoni chaka chomwecho.

Pa 15 Okutobala 2019, United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) idapereka zikalata ku International Telecommunication Union (ITU) m'malo mwa SpaceX kuti ikonzekere ma satelayiti owonjezera 30,000 a Starlink kuti awonjezere ma satellite 12,000 a Starlink omwe avomerezedwa kale ndi FCC.

Akatswiri a sayansi ya zakuthambo anena kuti akuda nkhawa ndi mmene magulu a nyenyeziwo angakhudzire sayansi ya zakuthambo zozikidwa pa nthaka komanso mmene ma satelayitiwo angawonjezerere malo okhala kale ozungulira ozungulira. SpaceX yayesera kuchepetsa nkhawa zakuthambo pokhazikitsa ma satelayiti a Starlink omwe cholinga chake ndi kuchepetsa kuwala kwawo panthawi yogwira ntchito. Kuphatikiza apo, ma satelayiti amapangidwa kuti apewe kugundana kutengera deta yolumikizidwa.

Mbiri[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Milalang'amba ya ma satelayiti otsika a Earth orbit idayamba kuganiziridwa mkati mwa zaka za m'ma 1980 ngati gawo la Strategic Defense Initiative, pomwe zida zidayenera kukhazikitsidwa mozungulira kuti ziwike zida zoponya mwangozi posachedwa. Kuthekera kwa kulumikizana kwanthawi yayitali kudazindikirikanso ndikukula kwa masamba muzaka za m'ma 1990 kudapangitsa kuti magulu ambiri amalonda azigwiritsa ntchito ma satellite pafupifupi 100 monga Celestri, Teledesic, Iridium, ndi Globalstar. Komabe mabungwe onse adalowa mu bankirapuse chifukwa cha kuphulika kwa dot-com, chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa ndalama zoyambira panthawiyo.

Mu June 2004, kampani yatsopano yotchedwa SpaceX inapeza gawo la Surrey Satellite Technology (SSTL) monga gawo la "masomphenya ogawana nawo". SSTL panthawiyo inali ntchito yokulitsa intaneti mumlengalenga. Komabe, mtengo wa SpaceX udagulitsidwanso ku EADS Astrium mu 2008 kampaniyo itayang'ana kwambiri pakuyenda komanso kuyang'anira Earth.

Kumayambiriro kwa chaka cha 2014, Elon Musk ndi Greg Wyler akuti ankagwira ntchito limodzi kukonza gulu la nyenyezi la ma satellites pafupifupi 700 lotchedwa WorldVu, lomwe likanakhala lalikulu kuwirikiza ka 10 kukula kwa gulu la nyenyezi lalikulu kwambiri la Iridium panthawiyo. Komabe, zokambiranazi zidatha pofika mu June 2014, ndipo SpaceX m'malo mwake idapereka pulogalamu ya ITU kudzera ku Norway telecom regulator pansi pa dzina lakuti STEAM. SpaceX idatsimikizira kulumikizana mu pulogalamu ya 2016 yopatsa chilolezo Starlink ndi FCC. SpaceX idalemba dzina la Starlink pamanetiweki awo a satellite broadband; dzinalo linauziridwa ndi bukhu lakuti The Fault in Our Stars.

Kupezeka ndi kuvomerezedwa ndi malamulo ndi dziko[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

Pofuna kupereka chithandizo cha satellite m'dziko lililonse, malamulo a International Telecommunication Union (ITU) ndi mapangano omwe akhalapo kwanthawi yayitali padziko lonse lapansi amafuna kuti ufulu wofikira uperekedwe ndi ulamuliro wa dziko lililonse, komanso m'dziko, ndi oyang'anira zoyankhulirana m'dziko. Zotsatira zake, ngakhale network ya Starlink ili pafupi ndi dziko lonse lapansi pamtunda wocheperapo pafupifupi 60 °, mautumiki a Broadband atha kuperekedwa m'maiko 40 kuyambira Seputembara 2022. SpaceX imathanso kukhala ndi magwiridwe antchito komanso malingaliro azachuma omwe angapangitse kusiyana. ndi mayiko ati omwe amapereka chithandizo cha Starlink, mwadongosolo liti, komanso posachedwa. Mwachitsanzo, SpaceX idapempha chilolezo ku Canada kokha mu June 2020, olamulira aku Canada adavomereza mu Novembala 2020, ndipo SpaceX idakhazikitsa miyezi iwiri pambuyo pake, mu Januware 2021. Pofika Seputembala 2022, ntchito za Starlink zinali kuperekedwa m'maiko 40. , ndi mapulogalamu omwe akudikirira kuvomerezedwa ndi malamulo ena ambiri. Wothandizira mafoni aku Japan, KDDI, adalengeza mgwirizano ndi SpaceX kuti ayambe kupereka mu 2022 kukulitsa kulumikizana kwamakasitomala akumidzi akumidzi kudzera pansanja zakutali za 1,200. Pa Epulo 25, 2022, Hawaiian Airlines idalengeza mgwirizano ndi Starlink kuti ipereke intaneti yaulere pa ndege yake, kukhala ndege yoyamba kugwiritsa ntchito Starlink. Mu May 2022, analengeza kuti chivomerezo cha malamulo chaperekedwa ku Nigeria, Mozambique, ndi Philippines. Mu Julayi 2022, zidalengezedwa kuti Starlink ikupezeka m'maiko 36 ndi misika 41.

# Kontinenti Dziko Poyamba
1 North America  United StatesTemplate:Country data Puerto RicoTemplate:Country data United States Virgin Islands <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Limited trials August 2020,[1] public beta November 2020[2]
2 North America  Canada January 2021[3]
3 Europe  United Kingdom January 2021[4]
4 Europe  Germany March 2021[5]
5 Oceania  New Zealand April 2021[6]
6 Oceania  Australia April 2021[7]
7 Europe  FranceTemplate:Country data Saint MartinTemplate:Country data Saint Barthélemy Original debut May 2021,[8][9] Revoked April 2022,[10] Re-approved June 2022[11]
8 Europe Template:Country data Austria May 2021[8]
9 Europe  Netherlands May 2021[12]
10 Europe  Belgium May 2021[13]
11 Europe  Ireland <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Limited trials April 2021,[14] public beta July 2021[15]
12 Europe  Denmark July 2021[16]
13 Europe  Portugal August 2021[17]
14 Europe Template:Country data Switzerland August 2021[18]
15 South America  Chile <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Limited trials July 2021,[19] public beta September 2021[20]
16 Europe Template:Country data Poland September 2021[21]
17 Europe  Italy September 2021[22]
18 Europe Template:Country data Czech Republic September 2021[23]
19 Europe Template:Country data Sweden October 2021[24]
20 North America  Mexico November 2021[25]
21 Europe Template:Country data Croatia November 2021[26]
22 Europe Template:Country data Lithuania December 2021[27][28]
23 Europe  Spain January 2022[29]
24 Europe Template:Country data Slovakia January 2022[30]
25 Europe Template:Country data Slovenia January 2022[31]
26 Oceania Template:Country data Tonga February 2022[32]
27 South America  Brazil January 2022[33][34]
28 Europe Template:Country data Bulgaria February 2022[35]
29 Europe Template:Country data Ukraine February 2022[36][37][38]
30 Europe Template:Country data Romania April 2022[39]
31 Europe Template:Country data Greece April 2022[40]
32 Europe Template:Country data Latvia April 2022[41]
33 Europe  Hungary May 2022[42]
34 Europe Template:Country data North Macedonia June 2022[43]
35 Europe  Luxembourg July 2022[44]
36 North America Template:Country data Dominican Republic July 2022[45]
37 Europe Template:Country data Moldova August 2022[46]
38 Europe Template:Country data Estonia August 2022[47]
39 South America  Colombia August 2022[48][49][50][51]
40 Europe  Norway August 2022[52]
41 Europe Template:Country data Malta September 2022[53]

Zolemba[Sinthani | sintha gwero]

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