Ufumu wa United Kingdom

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Elizabeth II ku Berlin 2015

Ulamuliro wachifumu waku United Kingdom, womwe nthawi zambiri umatchedwa ufumu wa Britain, ndiye mtundu waboma lomwe wolamulira wolowa cholowa amalamulira monga mtsogoleri wa dziko la United Kingdom, a Crown Dependencies (Bailiwick waku Guernsey, Bailiwick waku Jersey). ndi Isle of Man) ndi British Overseas Territories. Mfumu yapano ndi Mfumukazi Elizabeth II, yemwe adakhala pampando wachifumu mu 1952.

Amfumu ndi banja lawo lapafupi amagwira ntchito zosiyanasiyana, zamwambo, zaukazembe komanso zoyimira. Popeza ufumuwo uli ndi malamulo oyendetsera dziko lino, mfumuyi imangogwira ntchito monga kupatsa ulemu komanso kusankha nduna, zomwe zimachitika mopanda tsankho. Mfumuyi ndi Mtsogoleri wa Gulu Lankhondo Laku Britain. Ngakhale akuluakulu aboma akadali ndi mphamvu zoyendetsera boma ndi ulamuliro wa mfumu, mphamvuzi zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito molingana ndi malamulo okhazikitsidwa kunyumba yamalamulo komanso, motsata malamulo. Boma la United Kingdom limadziwika kuti Her (His) Majsty's Government.

Ulamuliro wachifumu waku Britain udachokera ku maufumu ang'onoang'ono a Anglo-Saxon England ndi Scotland wakale wakale, omwe adaphatikizana mu maufumu aku England ndi Scotland pofika zaka za zana la 10. England inagonjetsedwa ndi Normans mu 1066, pambuyo pake Wales nayenso pang'onopang'ono anayamba kulamulidwa ndi Anglo-Normans. Ntchitoyi idamalizidwa m'zaka za zana la 13 pomwe Utsogoleri waku Wales udakhala dziko lamakasitomala mu ufumu wa Chingerezi. Panthawiyi, Magna Carta adayamba njira yochepetsera mphamvu zandale za mfumu ya Chingerezi. Kuyambira mu 1603, maufumu a England ndi Scotland ankalamulidwa ndi mfumu imodzi. Kuchokera mu 1649 mpaka 1660, mwambo wa monarchy unasweka ndi republican Commonwealth of England, yomwe inatsatira Nkhondo za Mafumu Atatu. Pambuyo pa kuikidwa kwa William ndi Mary monga mafumu anzake m’Chigwirizano Chachikulu cholemekezeka, Bill of Rights 1689, ndi mnzake wa ku Scotland wotchedwa Claim of Right Act 1689, zinachepetsanso mphamvu za ufumu wa monarchy ndi kuchotsa Aroma Katolika pampando wachifumu. Mu 1707, maufumu a England ndi Scotland anaphatikizidwa kupanga Ufumu wa Great Britain, ndipo mu 1801, Ufumu wa Ireland unagwirizana kupanga United Kingdom of Great Britain ndi Ireland. Mfumu ya ku Britain inali mtsogoleri mwadzina wa Ufumu waukulu wa Britain, umene unatenga gawo limodzi mwa magawo anayi a dziko lonse lapansi pamlingo waukulu koposa mu 1921.

The Balfour Declaration of 1926 inazindikira kusinthika kwa Dominions of the Empire kukhala mayiko osiyana, odzilamulira okha mkati mwa Commonwealth of Nations. M’zaka za nkhondo yachiŵiri yapadziko lonse itatha, maiko ndi madera ambiri a ku Britain anakhala odziimira paokha, zomwe zinathetsa ufumuwo. George VI ndi wolowa m'malo mwake, Elizabeth II, adatenga mutu wa Mutu wa Commonwealth ngati chizindikiro chaufulu wamayiko omwe ali mamembala ake odziyimira pawokha. United Kingdom ndi mayiko ena khumi ndi anayi odziimira okha omwe amagawana munthu yemweyo monga mfumu yawo amatchedwa maiko a Commonwealth. Ngakhale kuti mfumuyi imagawidwa, dziko lirilonse liri lodziimira palokha komanso lodziyimira pawokha, ndipo mfumuyi ili ndi dzina ladziko lina, lachindunji, komanso lovomerezeka pamtundu uliwonse.

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